Wednesday, 28 August 2019

Long and Short Essay on Indira Gandhi

Essay on Indira Gandhi : Today, we are providing Long and short paragraph and Essay on Indira Gandhi in English for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12. Students can choose these essay according to their need.

    These easy and simple Essays on Indira Gandhi will give you information about INDIRA GANDHI'S LIFE, ACHIEVEMENTS AND HER FAILURES. 

    Short Essay on Indira Gandhi in 100 words

    Indira Gandhi was the first lady Prime Minister of India. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen years and during her Prime Minister ship, she achieved wide popularity. she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. She studied at the University of Oxford. Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984. The entire world mourned her death. The people of India still love and respect this Iron-lady.

    Essay on Indira Gandhi in 300 words

    Former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad, in the British India She died on October 31, 1984 in New Delhi,
    Long and short paragraph and Essay on Indira Gandhi
    India Indira Gandhi - no relation to Mahatma Gandhi - was the first female Prime Minister of India. She served as Prime Minister for four terms in all She served for three consecutive terms between the years 1966 and 1977. She was re-elected to a fourth term in 1980, and she served until her assasination in 1984.

    Indira was the granddaughter of Indian independence leader Motilal Nehru and daughter of the first Prime Minister of independent India. Jawaharlal Nehru She was brought up in a very political environment, and she became a good politician.

    Indira Gandhi was educated both in India and in Britain. When she returned to India from Oxdord in 1941, she began to work for the movement for Indian independence. She worked as an assistant for her father in the 1950s when he was Prime Minister. Her father died in 1964, When Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister for that year. Indira Gandhi was appointed Minister of Information and Broadcasting.

    Shastri died suddenly and Indira Gandhi Became Prime Minister. Her political upbringing served her well. She showed that she was a skilled politician, good at winning elections and achieving her goal. She pursued social economic policies aimed at helping the people, and worked to make the agricultural system more other and productive.

    She was voted out of office in 1977, but her party won the elections in 1980 and she became Prime Minister again.

    The Golden Temple is the most sacred shine for the Sich religion. In 1984 armed men occupied It. In June of that year, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to storm the Golden Temple to remove them. This offended the Sikhs, and motivated two of Gandhi's bodyguards to assassinate her on October 31, 1984. The New Delhi international airport is named the Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honor

    Essay on Indira Gandhi in 400 words with Conclusion

    Introduction : Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the beloved leader of the people of India. To see her was to love her. After her downfall in 1977, the people had again placed the country in her hands in 1980.

    Indira's Birth, Education and her Marriage : She was born on Nov. 19, 1917. She was brought up in a family full of political activities and love of country. So the family atmosphere had agreat influence on her mind. She got her education at Allahabad,Oxford and Shanti Niketan. In 1942, she was married to Mr. Feroze Gandhi, a Parsi Youth. He died in 1960, she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay.

    A Born Politician : Indira Gandhi was the worthy daughter of a worthy father. She was a born politician. After the death of her mother she had a very difficult time. In her early life she jumped into politics.

    Indira's Political Career : She had been the member of Indian National Congress. In 1959, she was elected President of National Congress. It was only after the death of her father that she became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. After the untimely death of Sh. Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, she was elected Prime Minister of India.

    Indira's work as the Prime Minister : She held the great office for about 17 years. During the period of her reign she led the country to a place of honour. It was under her leadership in 1971,that India defeated Pakistan and broke its back for ever. She nationalized all the major banks and abolished privy purses. Thesewere her two bold steps.

    In 1975 the opposition parties revolted after the historical judgement of Justice Sinha. To put all opposition down she declared a state of Internal Emergency. This brought her defeat in the general election of 1977.She was in hot water for a period of two and a half years. In the mid-term poll, held in January 1980 she won back her lost position.

    Indira's work after 1980 : Now she had to face many challenges.The demand of ‘Khalistan’ made her restless. The whole of the Punjab came in the grip of terrorism. These two things turned the Golden Temple into a fortress. The Akalis presented a great challenge to her. As a custodian of the country's unity she had to order the army to enter into Golden Temple. It freed the temple complex of terrorists.

    Indira Gandhi's Death : On the black Wednesday morning of 31st October, 1984 a 9.18 A.M. she was shot dead at her residence by two of her own security guards named Beant Singh and Satwant Singh. She died after few hours.

    Conclusion : The Nation mourned her death. In her deaththe Nation lost a worthy maker of India.

    Long Essay on Indira Gandhi in 1000 words

    Indira Gandhi, one of the best-known women of the 20th century, was Prime Minister of India, and daughter of former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Also known as Indira Nehru Gandhi, she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. She was born in a family that was at the centre of Indian freedom movement. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru and grandfather Motilal Nehru were at the forefront of Indian freedom struggle. Her mother Kamla Nehru, although less involved politically, was subject to political arrest by the British Indira Gandhi had a lonely childhood, with some of her most vivid remembrances being the entry into her home of British policemen. As her parents did not want to send her to any of the British schools in India, Indira Gandhi's education took place at a series of Indian schools and at non-British schools in Europe, with a number of private tutorials interspersed between periods at school.

    Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. The marriage was opposed by orthodox Hindus because it was an inter-communal love marriage not arranged by her parents. Jawaharlal Nehru too opposed the marriage on grounds that the couple were somewhat incompatible because both possessed fiery tempers. Publicly, however, both Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi strenuously defended the marriage. Shortly after their marriage both Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi were arrested and jailed for nationalist activities. Indira Gandhi was released after eight months and Feroze Gandhi after an year. After the release Feroze Gandhi became editor of The National Herald, a newspaper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the principal confidant and assistant of her father during the period of Nehru's prime ministership (1947-1965). The couple separated for a number of years during the 1950s as Feroze Gandhi launched his own political career in Parliament and was often at odds with Jawaharlal Nehru's policies and style. In 1959 Indira Gandhi became President of the Indian National Congress and in 1964 she was elected to the parliament Meanwhile, the death of Feroze Gandhi (from a heart attack) in 1960, and the subsequent death of her father in 1964, caused Indira Gandhi to withdraw into a shell and limit herself to her immediate family.

    After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister and Indira Gandhi was the minister of Information and Broadcasting in his government. After Lal Bahadur Shastri's untimely death in 1966, she was selected as prime minister by party bosses within the Congress Party as a compromise candidate. Her candidature was opposed by Morarji Desai, a veteran nationalist and prime ministerial aspirant himself. The Congress bosses were apparently looking for a leading figure acceptable to the masses, who could not only command general support during the next general election but who would also acquiesce to their guidance. In her initial days as Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi encountered numerous problems such as Mizo tribal uprisings in the northeast; famine, labour unrest and misery among the poor in the wake of rupee devaluation, and agitation in Punjab for linguistic and religious separatism.

    In the fourth general elections held in 1967, Congress suffered a major setback. Congress majority was greatly reduced in parliament and non-Congress ministries were established in Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Madras, Punjab, and West Bengal. This forced Mrs. Indira Gandhi to become assertive and opt for a series of choices that pitted her directly against the Congress Party high command, which had previously been built up by her father. Seeking to eradicate poverty, Mrs. Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 of land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property, and corporate profits. She also nationalized the major banks, a bold step amidst a growing rift between herself and the party elders. The Congress expelled her for "indiscipline" on November 12, 1969, an action that split the party into two factions: the Congress (O)-for Organisation-led by Morarji Desai, and the Congress (1)--for Indira-led by Indira Gandhi.

    Indira Gandhi campaigned fiercely on the slogan of "Garibi Hatao* (eliminate poverty) during the fifth general elections in March 1971 and won an unprecedented two-third majority. Her leadership qualities came to the fore during India-Pakistan war in 1971 that resulted in liberation of Bangladesh, India achieved decisive victory over Pakistan in the face of diplomatic opposition from both China and the United States and a lack of international support from almost every other nation except the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. Indian victory over Pakistan led to a great surge in Indira Gandhi's popularity and she was compared to Goddess Durga by ordinary Indians.

    Expectations raised by the garibi hatao campaign and India's victory over Pakistan in 1971 led to great disappointment and political difficulties in the mid-1970s. Enormous economic cost of 1971 war, increase in world oil prices and drop in industrial output added to the economic hardships. During this time J.P.Narayan initiated a civil disobedience movement against Indira Gandhi. In June 1975, amidst all this crises Allahabad High Court invalidated her 1971 election on the grounds of electoral malpractices. Instead of resigning  Indira Gandhi declared an Emergency in the country and jailed al her political opponents. The Emergency lasted till March 1977 and in the general election held afterwards she was defeated by a coalition of parties called Janta Morcha.

    Factionalism among coalition partners led to the collapse of Janta government and Indira Gandhi came back to the power once again in 1980. But her second innings was beset with difficulties and personal tragedies. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. Her government was confronted with serious challenges to its ability to maintain law and order as conflicts between religious and ethnic groups broke out in different parts of the country. After the army had invaded the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the chief shrine of the Sikhs, which had been held as an armed camp by a group of militant Sikhs, she became the target for Sikh anger and on 31 October 1984 she was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguard.

    Achievements: Became President of Indian National Congress in 1959; was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in Lal Bahadur Shastri's government; became Prime Minister in 1966; nationalized major banks in 1969; gave the slogan of Garibi Hatao during 1971 general elections: led India to a decisive war against Pakistan in 1971.

    LONG ESSAY ON INDIRA GANDHI HER ACHIEVEMENTS AND HER FAILURES

    Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi was sworn-in as the Prime Minister of India on 26th January, 1964, after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen years and during her Prime Ministership she achieved wide popularity. From the very beginning of her coming to this important office, she had to face a large number of difficulties - internal as well as external-and it is creditable that after facing each new difficulty she, as well as the nation, emerged with greater confidence and sense of strength. She took various, revolutionary steps for the well-being and prosperity of the Indian people.

    First of all she had to evercome the strains imposed on the Indian economy by the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. Next, drought and floods devasted large parts of the country. Then in 1971, there was another war with Pakistan and an influx of about ten million refugees from Bangladesh. In the war, Pakistan armies were routed and over a lakh of her troops surrendered unconditionally. The result was the birth of a new and friendly nation Bangladesh. The refugees were all sent back. It was during this time of crisis that she signed the historic treaty of peace and friendship with the Soveit Union. In this way she secured a powerful friend for India.

    No sooner had Mrs. Gandhi and the people succeeded in solving these problems, than there was an international oil crisis which caused an increase in the prices of patroleum, fertilizers, chemicals, food and other commodities, which India had to import in large quantities. This further increased the inflationary pressure on the India economy. Prices soared and the purchasing power of the rupee declined in both domestic and foreign markets. It goes to the credit of Mrs. Gandhi that despite such over- whelming difficulties, she was able to check inflation and bring down prices.

    In order to acquire full control over the economy, late Mrs. Indira Gandhi nationalised fourteen major banks. By this step the banks were enabled to divert loans to the weaker sections of society. This was followed by the take over of the general insurance companies and coal mines. After this, various foreign oil refineries were taken over. She also abolished the privy purses and other privileges of the Indian princes. After 25 years of independence, it was reasonable to end the special rights of the former rulers. The Government had to pay several crores of rupees every year to these Rajas and Maharajas and the Indian people had to bear this burden. It was a bold step in the direction of socialism.

    Special attention was paid to, the development of Science and technology. Two major achievements of the period are an underground nuclear explosion for peaceful purposes, and the launching of satellites into space. By these achievements, the prestige of the nation was increased manifold in the word. Now, not only does India have a large number of efficient scientists, technicians and doctors for herself, but is also sending technical personnel in large numbers to the underdeveloped countries of the world.

    Under her able leadership, India marched towards self-reliance very rapidly. It started drilling oil from Bombay High and it is estimated that soon India will have enough oil for its needs. Thus, a large amount of foreign exchange wasted on the import of oil will be saved. On the agriculture side also, India has become self-reliant. Food production has been doubled, and the birth rate has been brought down through intensive family planning drives.

    A vigorous campaign against anti-social elements like smugglers and tax-evaders, was launched. As a result of the arrest and detention of hundreds of smugglers, drain on India's foreign exchange resources was considerably reduced. Hundreds of hoarders and black-marketeers were arrested and this led to a fall in the prices of essential commodities

    Unfortunately, the opposition parties launched agitations against the elected government and also against Mrs. Gandhi personally. They tried to remove the government by force. There were violent agitations in Bihar and Gujrat and Bundhs' and Gherao's all over the country. Near chaotic conditions prevailed, and for sometime it seemed there was no government in the country. Taking into account the subversive role of the opposition parties, she considered it necessary to declare a state of emergency arising from threats of inter disturbance. Opposition leaders were arrested, and communal parties like the R.S.S. and Anand Marg were banned.

    During the nineteen months of emergency there was marked improvement in every walk of life. In government offices efficiency returned after a long time. A large number of corrupt and inefficient officers w were suspended or retired. There were no strikes and lock outs in industries. Schools and colleges once again functioned peacefully. The use of unfair means was checked and examinations were held on schedule. Sense of discipline was infused into national life. Peace, stability, law and order, were once again restored in a country which seemed to be on the brink of chaos and disintegration.

    However, by the declaration of emergency Mrs. Gandhi caused great hardships to the people. There were excesses of all sorts. The result was the rout of the Congress and the coming of the Janta Party to power. There were many other ways of dealing with the chaotic conditions which prevailed before the emergency. But the Janta party could not rule for any length of time. Mrs. Gandhi was back again, more powerful than ever before.

    During the last three years of her career she attended a number of international conferences and emerged as a leader of international status. The successful holding of the Asiad games, despite position, was a sign achievement. Under her dynamic leadership Indian economy began to look up. The country was safe in her hands. The Punjab problem was the most difficult problem that she had to face in her career. The Operation Blue Star made the hard-core among the sikhs hostile to her. Her name stood at the top of their hit list. The result was she was assassinated on 31st October, 1984, and the entire world mourned her death.

    Thus ended a brilliant career full of remarkable achievements.

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