Monday, 24 December 2018

India-Pakistan Peace process is a Hype or Realism. What should it be?

India-Pakistan Peace process is a Hype or Realism. What should it be?

"Peace cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by understanding." -Albert Einster
Peace process is realized and achieved more fruitfully when there are balances of power psychologically, economically, militarily, etc. between the two countries. However, Pakistan always tried to make and show itself on equal footing in all areas with India since independence. That is the main hurdle between the countries' peace process to be realized.

The conflict between India and Pakistan started Pakistani as a nation. The Pakistani lawmakers wanted to merge the princely states of Junagarh and Kashmir into Pakistan against the will of the people; as they wanted to become dominant power in south Asia and they never wanted to see India as one dominant power. India also had vast geographical area and natural resources. These were the reasons why Pakistan got upset with India. After independence Pakistan supported tribal groups attack on Jammu and Kashmir to acquire the state and the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir-Raja Hari Singh signed a treaty with India but it was too late because at that time Pakistan captured one third of the territory of Kashmir. The problem of Junagarh was solved but the problem of Kashmir remained unsolved after six decades and this is the root of all the problems between India and Pakistan relationships.
  1. Conflict on Kashmir is the mother of all problems between two nations. The solution to the problem of Kashmir is still revolving around the four possible solutions suggested by Nehru. But many of them became irrelevant. The solutions suggested by Nehru are:
  2. The Jammu and Kashmir should be an independent buffer state between in and the responsibility of Jammu and Kashmir would be a joint responsibility of India and Pakistan; this option becomes irrelevant because of the credibility of military of Pakistan which always supports the militants.
  3. The Kashmir valley should be given to Pakistan and Jammu should remain with India; this option was also ruled out because it would be acceptance of two nation’s theory. Since the pre-independence era, India has declined the acceptance of the two-nation theory.

  4. As per the UN resolution, there should be a referendum in Kashmir but Pakistan did not comply with UN resolution since 1949. As the resolution is declared by Indian Parliament as being null and void, Jammu and Kashmir became an integral part of India.
  5. LOC (Line of Control) becomes the actual border between India and Pakistan; this is the only visible solution.
In 1966, the Tashkent conference was held under the pressure of UN, USA and USSR between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shashtri and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan to return the conquered region of each other and also get back to 1949 status quo. They also agreed to not interfere in each other's internal affairs.
After the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war, Pakistan came on the table to normalize the relation with talks. In July 1972, a treaty was signed between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in Shimla known as Simla Agreement. In this agreement, both countries agreed to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiation, cease-fire on LOC (Line of Control) and to convert this LOC into international border. In this agreement, both nations had also agreed to develop the friendly relation between them and to promote travel facilities, trade cooperation, exchange in the field of science and culture. But the real problem is that Pakistan has never accepted the Simla Agreement.

Initially in 1950s and 1960s, Pakistan thought that it could defeat India in direct war as it was backed by USA. Pakistan declared war against India from time to time and faced defeat in return. In 1971, India helped East Pakistan in liberation from Pakistan and created a new nation called Bangladesh. In this war, over ninety thousand Pakistani soldiers surrendered to the Indian Army. After the war of 1947, 1965 and 1971 Pakistan understood that they won't be able to defeat India in direct war ever. So after 1980s, the Pakistani Army and ISI (Inter-Service Intelligence) declared untraditional or indirect war against India. They started supporting and funding separatists of Kashmir, terrorists and non state actors.

In the line of untraditional wars, Kargil war, Mumbai attack and recent Pathankot attack and Uri attack are some of the major attacks by Pakistani non state actors or Pakistan based terrorist groups which are directly or indirectly supported by the Government of Pakistan.

In 2001, a summit was held between Indian PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf. But the talk failed between these two. To make relationship better, both countries have launched several confidence-building measures, one of which is the Samjhauta Express, a bus service between Delhi and Lahore and between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad, easing visa restriction. Prime Minister Modi invited all neighbouring chief of the nations along with Pakistani Prime

Minister Nawaz Sharif in his oath ceremony and also surprised others through his to Pakistan to attend Nawaz Sharif's grand-daughter's wedding. This shows that India improve the relation with Pakistan.

Along with these talks, summits and agreements there were other various rounds of talks and summits held between India and Pakistan. The main problem came up from the side of Pakistan as it seems that Pakistan did not want to solve the problem of the two nations. After the Mumbai and Pathankot terrorist attacks, India gave numerous of strong evidences to Pakistan of the involvement of Pakistan based terrorist group or terrorists being involved in these attacks and they are freely roaming in Pakistan. Pakistan also violates the cease-fire line on LOC and international Border on regular basis. Many of the Indian soldiers were killed in inhumane way by Pakistani Army or BAT (Border Action Team).

In recent times, India cancelled the bilateral talks with Pakistan in reaction to Pathankot and Uri attack. India's stand is that talk and terrorism cannot go hand in hand as there are strong evidences of involvement of Pakistani army and ISI of Pakistan in these attacks and these terrorists are trained by them. India decided to review the Indus water treaty which is considered to be the most liberal treaty in the world. India also boycotted the 2016 SAARC summit which was scheduled to be held in Islamabad. India also strongly raised the issue of Pakistan funding and supporting of non state actors and terrorists in UN General Assembly and other international platform.

So it is not easy to say that the peace process between India and Pakistan is hype or realism. Since the independence there were numerous talks between the governments of two and the problem is still unsolved. But in such circumstances one thing is clear that we should come up with more concrete plan to resolve the dispute and establishment of peace between two nations.

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