Tuesday, 28 August 2018

Essay on Population Explosion in India : Causes, Effects and Prevention

Essay on Population Explosion in India

Essay on Population Explosion in India
Population explosion is the most serious problem of India. According to 2000 census the population was one billion whereas it became 1.21 billion on 31 March 2011. But more alarming the discerning fact than this figure is the fact that the population is rising at the rate of 16 million per annum. The number of new months that are annually added to our population almost equals the total population of Australia. India has 2.4 % of landed area of word where is it’s there in the world population is now 16%. The annual growth rate of population is about 1.55 crore and if the population continues to rise at such a rapid speed our population may surpass China’s population by the year 2025. It is really an explosion and if drastic action is not taken to check the population growth the entire efforts towards development will be mollified. 

There are various reasons for the population explosion. The major cause is the poverty and backwardness. Eighty percent of our population resides in the rural areas they are backward and superstitious. Off springs are considered as the gifts of God. Poor people considered the newly born as helping hands in earning and supporting the family. The lower status of women especially in the villages and among lower income groups makes the situation given words. In India by and large masses have no other source of entertainment except indulging in sex. Certain communities also have some religious fears against the methods of family planning. There is also the inherent desire in every Indian family to have a male child. It so happens that sometimes in the hope of getting a male child a number of daughters are born. Above all the major cause for population explosion is the fall in death rate brought about by better health condition effective control of epidemics and the Jungle improvement in economic conditions. In fact the population is rising so dramatically in India not only because of high birth rate but because of low death rate. 

The ever increasing population has swallowed the development efforts made through our five year plans. About 40 crore people are living below poverty line. There is lack of employment opportunities and a good number of unemployed people are interesting thefts, robberies, murders and other Anti Social activities. Due to lack of proper Medical health facilities and malnutrition crores of people are becoming victims of disease like cancer, AIDS, T.B. Heart Attack etc. About 50 crore people do not even get pure water for drinking. People are forced to live in slums at the river banks and other remote areas. There is problem of congestion and overcrowding in the urban areas. The environment has become unhealthy on account of water pollution air pollution and noise pollution. In the absence of adequate education facilities the literacy rate is quite low. There is about 47 crore illiteracy in the country. 

India was the first developing country in the world which adopted the family planning as a national program in 1952. The concept of small family which is being propagated by the government is not only good for the nation but it is also good for the children and the parents. Small families can definitely bring up their children in a better way. They can feed them better and give them better education. A small family is also essential for the health of the mother the children as well as for the society as a whole. Our five year plans were instructed to meet the challenges of growing numbers. The emphasis in the first two five year plans was on research in the field of motivation, communication, demography and extension of Central and state Organization in providing clinical services. The task of inviting the people in the methods of family planning was taken up in the right earnest. A variety of contraceptive popularized and made available to the public free of charge or at subsidized rate. Despite these efforts the 1961 census revealed no appreciable decrease in the birth rate. The family planning drive was then reinforced with fresh vigor and time bound programs were charged out to ensure its success. During the emergency even question was used to sterilize people. Later the minimum marriageable age was raised to 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls. Abortion has been legalized as subsidiary images of prevention of child birth. In maternity and general hospital special arrangements have been made for the purpose as a result of various family planning program started after the Census of 1970. it was 41.2 per thousand in 1971, which came down to 37.2 per thousand during 1981. As per 1991 census, the birth rate further fell to 32.5 per thousand. The death rate also came down to 11.4 per thousand in 1991 as against 22.8 per thousand in 1961 and 15 per thousand in 1981.

Our family planning program has not brought in the desired results. The department of Family Welfare simply carries out certain statistical exercises and pictures target for various family planning programs like sterilization, vasectomy, tubectomy, pill usage etc. But while laying down the targets it does not take into consideration several other aspects such as the cost is structured the level of fertility and mortality the level of education the neglect of girl child etc. The target has become an end in itself and not the means for achieving a decline in the birth rate. 

The Government of India took a serious note of the situation. An all party meeting of M.Ps at New Delhi on December 13, 1999 on the issue of wearing those with more than two children from contesting elections in Parliament and state assemblies. Only the CPI and Shivsena backed the proposal. All other parties categorically rejected the proposal. The government has declared the new Population Policy in February 2000. A hundred members National Commission on population has been appointed to stabilize the population of India by the year 2045, by regarding late marriages and the birth of girls. As per new Population Policy the basic education will be made compulsory and free for all. The minimum marriageable age of girls will be raised from 18 years to 20 years. Registration of marriage, pregnancy and birth date will be made compulsory. Self help groups will be given incentive at village and panchayat level. Up to the level of living below poverty will be given 500 rupees for care of infants. The couples living below poverty line will be included in the health insurance scheme if the size of their family is small. To sum the new population policy 2000 contains nothing new and it would be futile to call it a true work plan.

The problem of population explosion can be solved effectively if proper approach and right policies are adopted. if China which has more population than India can control its population growth effectively, why can’t India do?

The population growth can be effectively checked by resorting to social and economic development programs. Health services need improvement, particularly in the rural areas. Poverty needs to be eradicated. Various family tag programs should be propagated through radio, T.V. and film strips etc., so that the people are made aware of using the contraceptives. The population related problems can be solved to a great extent by providing education facilities in the rural areas. The mothers should also be encouraged to prolong breast feeding which is known to delay the next pregnancy. 

If our country has to become strong and prosperous, the ever increasing talon has to be checked at all costs. Corruption in family planning programs has to be eradicated. Family planning devices need vigorous propagation through various means of communication. The education facilities have to be extended to every nook and corner of the country. People having more than two children should be made ineligible to contest elections. China's 'One Child Plan' should be implemented in the country as early as possible. Family Planning program has to become a people movement. The initiative has to come from the side of general masses because ultimately they have to suffer due to rise in population. Government cannot do it alone.

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