Wednesday, 20 February 2019

Essay on A Visit to a fair- Mahakumbh

Essay on A Visit to a fair- Mahakumbh


Essay on A Visit to a fair- Mahakumbh

A Visit to a fair- Mahakumbh
Introduction- Every religion has its own customs to pursue. Each religion has numerous disciples who in order to acknowledge the path of devotion and salvation, they have to leave their passions behind them and divulge in the strict rules via meditation, concentration and asceticism, to learn about the secret of life, the values of a human beings. And when a human learns the secret of life and lives accordingly, he becomes divine; the warmth of whose radiance makes the angry calm, which soothes down every part of the body from the mind to the soul. And among those paths one is taking dip in the holy water of the “Triveni” at the Mahakumbh.

A passionate celebration-The Mahakumbhs, a joyous and passionate celebration, is a large 'mela' organized once every twelve years on the bank of the 'Triveni', i.e. in kumbh nagar in Allahabad where the three rivers Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical underground Saraswati merge with each other, to form a unique 'sangam' of the three holy water bodies to host the largest congregation of human beings in the world.

Scene at Triveni- While millions and millions of restless souls converge every dozen years at the sangam to take a dip in the holy confluence of the three rivers, so that they can attain 'moksha' or freedom from the earthly relations and possession and hence can die in peace, the mahakumbh is one of those rare occasions when one gets to see the vivid colors of life, feel what life is really about, feel the passion of life and can learn to live life the way it is.

The vivid colors of this fiesta can be seen from the 'Triveni' itself. The Ganga, which is transparent, the Yamuna is sort of purple and the Saraswati which is supposed to be dusky yellow, converge at this point to assume a color which is a strange sort of violet. Even though the kumbh is always in the danger of militant attacks and mishaps such as drowning, stampedes etc. the local authorities are tested on these occasions and have to be constantly on the alert. Despite the chances of catastrophe many people brave these dangers; because the dip in the holy waters is not just a bath, it is something more. The dip in the Triveni is oddly satisfying and comforting, even though the water is freezing cold. It makes one feel strangely free from earthly possessions, the sensation is that of being born again after the dip as if one has taken a dip in the fountain of oblivion.

Conclusion- The Mahakumbh is really a festival connected to the Hindu religions. But this does not stop followers of other religions from taking pleasure of this great holy festivity. Even though several religious parties do not recommend it, several Muslims, Sikhs and Christians break this religious barrier and take a dip in the holy water. Hence, Mahakumbh is also a symbol of social equality and benefits the unity and integrity of the nation, that we live alike and no matter what we are going to live as one, because No religion teaches animosity among Followers of Religions—we are all Indians and India is our country.
Essay on Anna Hazare in English

Essay on Anna Hazare in English


Essay on Anna Hazare in English

Kisan Baburao Anna Hazare popularly known as Anna Hazare. He is an Indian Social activist and anarcho pacifist who is especially recognised to the development and structuring of Relegan Siddhi, a village of Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of Indian in 1992. Hazare started a fast unto death on 5 April 2011 to exent pressure on the government of India to enact a strong anti-corruption act as envisaged in the Jan Lokpal Bill.

anna hazare essay in english
Kisan Baburao Anna Hazare was born on 15 June, 1937 in Bhingar, a small village near the city of Ahmednagar. Anna Hazare's father name was Baburao Hazare. He worked as an unskilled labourer in Ayurveda Ashram Pharmacy. His grandfather was in the Army posted at Bhingar, when he was born. His grandfather died in 1945 but Hazare's father Baburao continued to stay at Bhingar. In 1952 Hazare's father resigned from his job and returned to his own village, Relegan Siddhi Hazare had six younger siblings and the family faced significant hardship. Hazare's childless aunt offered to look after him and his education and took young Kisan to Mumbai. Anna Hazare studied up to the Seventh standard in Mumbai due to the financial situation is his household. He started selling flowers at Dadar to support his family. He soon started his own shop and brought to of his brothers to Bombay in 1962. Despite not meeting the physical requirement, 25 years old Anna was selected, as emergency recruitment was taking place in the Indian Army. After training at Aurangabad in Maharashtra he started his career in the Indian Army as a driver in 1963. Hazare took an oath to dedicate his life to the service of humanity, at the age of 38.

In 1975 after a voluntary retirement from the Indian army, Hazare went to his native village Relegaon Siddhi. Hazare made remarkable economic, social and community regeneration in Ralegaon Siddhi. Ralegan is located in the foothills, so Hazare persualed villagers to construct a watershed embankment to stop water and allow it to percolate and increase the ground water level and improve irrigation when Hazare came in Ralegan Siddhi in 1975 only to acres of land was irrigated Hazare converted it into about 2,500 acres. In 1932 Relegan Siddhi got its first formal school, a single classroom primary school. In 1962, the villagers added more classroom volunteer efforts. By 1971, out of an estimated population of 1209 only 30.43% were literate. In 1976 they started a pre-school and a high school in 1979. The social barriers and discrimination that existed due to the caste system in India have been largely eliminated by Relegan Siddhi villagers. It was Anna Hazare moral leadership that motivated and inspired the people of Relegan Siddhi to shun untouchability and discrimination against the Dalit. People of all casts come together to celebrate social events. Hazare campaigned between 1998 and 2006 for amending the Gram Sabha Act, so that the villagers have a say in the development works in their village. In Ralegan Siddhi, Gram Sabha meetings are held periodically to discuss issues relating to the welfare of the village. In 1991 Hazare launched the Bhrashtachar Virodhi Jan Aundalon in Relegan Siddhi.

Hunger Strike in Delhi-Hazare began his fast unto death on 5 April, 2011 at Jantar Mantar in Delhi to press for the demand to form a joint committee of the representative of the Government and the civil society to draft a stranger anti-corruption bill. Almost 150 people, reportedly joined Hazare in his fast, Social activist, including Medha Patkar, Arvind Kejriwal, former IPS officer Kiran Bedi and Jayaprakash narayan support to Hazare’s Hunger strike and anti corruption campaign.

Monday, 18 February 2019

Essay on A train accident which I can’t forget

Essay on A train accident which I can’t forget


Essay on A train accident which I can’t forget

Introduction- A train is the most common mode of transport for man to go from any one place to another. It is so exciting and interesting when we go in a train from one town to another in the country. On the way we cross all kinds of terrain like plains, hilly areas, water expanses and bridges over gorges and rivers. It gives the travelers a beautiful view of the entire gamut of terrain existing in the areas crossed, which is almost always a wide variety. All this seen from the distance is really fascinating but, when any one of these beauties causes damage to the train or the passengers, the beauty turns into a nasty appearance.

Wish to reach safety- However, when one sits in a train bound to go thousands of kilometers to meet loved ones or to perform some duty, we never can be sure that, we will return home or even reach the destination safely. An accident of a train has become absolutely common place now days. When we board a train we can never be sure of what is in store for us in a train a few thousand people travel together and, if an accident occurs, it is just very great luck for those who survive. The trains run at such fast speed that an accident means easily hundreds of people dead or maimed for life.

An accident- I remember how I once had to face the trauma of a train accident which I was aboard, with my parents. It was day time I think about 4 P.M., when the train that was bound for Bhubaneshwar with all of us on board met with an accident. Five of the compartments of the train got derailed when the train hit into standing goods train. Oh! I remember how we, my mother and I fell from the second tier of our compartment and that also on the huge tanks laid down on the floor of the compartment. Both of us had lost balance when the train gave a jerk and stopped with a thud. By chance, at that time my father was in the toilet and he fell there and hit his head with the tank there. With great difficulty, he came out of the toilet with a profusely bleeding forehead and absolutely frantic in search of Mummy and me. He thought that the train had collided with another moving train which could spell a major disaster. However, when he came to us and found us safe though badly hurt, he asked the other passengers as to what had happened. He was told that, their train had rammed into a standing goods train and a few bogies had been derailed. Now he went down to see and with him I also went.

Conclusion- What I have not still understood is how, a standing train could not be detected by the train moving on its own track. Besides, I cannot understand how the goods train could be left standing on the track on which a passenger train was due. This can only be attributed to absolute negligence of the train staff and the railway staff on the whole. Such accidents are caused by sheer callousness of people concerned and those involved must be punished severely for such gross negligence of the train staff and the railway staff on the whole. Such accidents are caused by sheer callousness of people concerned and those involved must be punished severely for such gross negligence.
Essay on A Flood Scene for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Essay on A Flood Scene for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10


Essay on A Flood Scene for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Introduction- Sometimes there is a heavy rainfall. Rivers and streams cannot contain all rain water. Then the water overflows their banks. This is called a flood. Sometimes the flood is caused by the melting of snow on the mountains. There are certain parts of the country where floods come every year.

Various factors- Floods are caused by various factors. Whatever the cause of floods, they do great damage. Sometimes, flood water enters villages suddenly. People are taken by surprise. The scenes of floods are fearful. Thousands of villages are washed away. Standing crops are destroyed. Cattle and men are killed. Roads are broken. Travelling becomes a problem. There is a big loss of life and property. Besides, many diseases follow the floods.

Government's efforts- The Government is alert in times of floods. It tries to give relief to the people. It takes both long time and short time measures. Suffering people get food to eat and house to live in. They are taken to some safer places. Their cattle are also given fodder. Doctors with medicines are sent to the flood affected people. Sometimes money is distributed for the construction of their houses.

Flood as an evil- Floods are an evil, no doubt. But they are also useful. They make the land rich. They add to the fertility of the land. The production goes up and farmers are happy. They both lose and gain something.

Need to check the flood- But the floods have to be checked at any cost. In this age of modern river engineering, floods can be stopped. Permanent solution should be found out. The level of river banks can be raised. Canals can be dug to take surplus water. Dams should be made to hold water so projects for checking floods have to be taken up with great interest and determination.

Advent of monsoon- About a fort night has passed from time the monsoon broke out in the country. Newspapers had been publishing news of satisfactory and heavy rains at different places. But there was nothing in particular about rains in our locality. I had gone to Delhi to see my maternal uncle who was ill. I saw from the train, when it was passed over from the railway bridge that the water level of Yamuna has risen very high and next day I heard on Radio in the morning that the Yamuna River has in heavy flood.

Curious to see flood scene- As the news was of great interest to all Delhiwallas many people went to see the flood scene. I too, went to see the flooded areas and if possible, to help the victims. On reaching there, I saw that there a great crowd of spectators. The Government servants the police were trying to check them from going ahead. I stood upon the roof of a bus which was standing there. As far as I could see there was nothing but water and water alone. The water in the river was flowing with great speed. Some big logs of woods were also flowing and floating with a great speed. One side I saw that a thatch was floating down on which goal was sitting. In this way many small and big creatures were seen floating on the water.

Some people were simple looking at all this as an interesting sight. They had no idea about the loss, the floods had caused. But there were others who were greatly pained to see the havoc. According to some reports nearly all the villages, which were situated on the banks of rivers had completely been destroyed. Villagers had been rendered homeless. Property worth crores of rupees had flown into the waters. Above all this, the condition of the numerous people which had been uprooted was pitiable. The problem of giving them shelter was pitiable.

Government help- In the mean time, the Government ambulance car reached there. Some private doctors were also called to give first aid on the spot. Others, whose condition was serious, were removed to the hospital in the ambulance car. This medical help was given to all the needy people.

Conclusion- Besides this, Government also rushed food stuffs to the floods affected areas. In those areas which were surrounded by water from all sides food stuffs were dropped from aero plane. The home minister visited flood affected area from helicopter. After his visit special officers were deputed to give; every possible help to the flood victims.

Sunday, 17 February 2019

Essay on A House On Fire

Essay on A House On Fire


Essay on A House On Fire

A House On Fire
Introduction- I had never seen a house on fire before. So, one evening when I heard fire engines with loud alarm bells rushing fast my house, I quickly ran out and, a few streets away, joined a large crowd of people; but we could see the fire only from a distance because the police would not allow any one near the building on fire.

A large gathering- A large number of people already gathered there. People were hurrying to and fro and throwing full of sand and water on the flames. Their faces looked ghostly and wired in the red light of flames, which were leaping up to the clouds. The air was thick with smoke and pungent with the fumes of the burning timber. Our eyes smarted and our skin seemed to burn.

Terrible scene- What a terrible scene I saw that day! Huge flames of fire were coming out of each floor, and black and thick smoke spread all around. Every now and then tongues of fire would shoot up almost sky high, sending huge sparks of fire round about.

Furious fire-The fire had now reached the second floor and the tongues of flames were licking the ceiling of the story above. Suddenly the roof fell with a thunderous rash. The flame now shot up higher than ever and the burning sparks danced all round. It was a terrible sight.

Efforts to put off fire-Three fire engines were busily engaged and the firemen in their dark uniform were playing the hose on various parts of the building. The rushing water from several hoses soaked the building. But it did not seem to have any effect on the flames. Then the tall red ladders of the fire engine were stretched upwards and I could see some firemen climbing up with hoses in their hands. On reaching almost the top of the ladder, they began to throw floods of water on the topmost part of the building. This continuous flooding brought the fire under control but the building was completely destroyed.

Conclusion- While fire is a blessing in many ways; it can also be a great danger to human life and property.
Essay on The Evening Scene In My Village

Essay on The Evening Scene In My Village


Essay on The Evening Scene In My Village

The Evening Scene In My Village
Introduction- India is a land of villages. Villages have their own beauty and charm. Every moment of day and night has its own attraction. Many people think that evening means the end of that day's work. During the day time, people are at work when the sun shines in the sky, all creatures on earth derive energy from the sun. After sunset all activities of life slow down. In a word, evening means rest. Even in the world of nature, evening creates a sense of rest and silence.

Wonderful evening- Gradually trees are vanishing from towns and cities. But they are found in plenty in villages. In the evening birds are seen flying back to their nests. We can enjoy the godhooli only in villages. In towns and cities, electric light destroys that scene. In villages, cattle which are not taken out to the grazing ground are fed. We can find lamps almost at every door.  Most of the villagers are poor. They cannot buy oil, so the lamps are lighted for a while only. Now there is electricity in some of the villages. Even then there is complete darkness in villages during the most part of the night.

Evening routine-Cow boys are seen returning from the grazing ground with their cattle in the evening. It is a common sight in the villages for most part of the year. Villagers go to bed early and get up early in the morning. Most of the villagers have their meals for the night early in the evening. The evening scene in villages during winter is interesting. There is a lighted fire under some tree. Villagers gather round this fire and they gossip for hours.

In villages, men are doing their work and women, too, are busy doing something in the evening. They bring water from wells. They bring some wood for fire. Soon they are engaged in cooking simple food for their families. There is silence all around the village in the evening. But scenes in villages in the evening are fast changing. Motor cars, buses, scooters and motor cycles play along the roads of the village. So, the silence and peace that we found once will no more be found now.

Conclusion-However, the evening scene in a village changes with the change of the seasons. But one thing is certain. Villagers stop work late in the evening and consider it as the end of their day's work. School going children sit down to study in the evening.
Essay on  importance of Discipline in Life

Essay on importance of Discipline in Life


Essay on  importance of Discipline in Life

Essay on  importance of Discipline in Life
Introduction-Discipline means orderly life, without discipline is no life. We need be guided by rules. Discipline is the backbone of nation. Only those nations where people have a discipline are prosper in all fields. They even rule other nations. Discipline is a valuable asset at all levels of society. A family having no discipline becomes a den of quarrels and ultimately divided. An educational institution having no discipline does not impart education. That is what one sees in some of the states of India. To study or not to study, to teach or not to teach to attend the classes or not to attend the classes all is left to the sweet wish of the students and teachers. Such institution looks more like a vegetable market than a school or college.

Discipline and third world countries- Indiscipline has become a trait in the third world countries. In India indiscipline is seen in legislative assembly and parliament, Chairs and mikes are thrown at one another. Abuses are lashed. When these law making bodies are the most indiscipline bodies. What can we expect in the social and national life? The indiscipline of political leaders is reflected in the whole society. The whole nation suffers. The country does not make progress.

Discipline and European Countries- Discipline is seen in most of the European countries and in Japan and Israel. That is why these countries make progress. Discipline is born of a sense of responsibility among the people. The people in developed countries know their obligation to the nation. This results in a discipline in every field. That is how Japan has made a place for her in the whole world.

Life of Slavery- The indiscipline people have to lead a life of slavery. Democracy is a mockery in indiscipline countries. They are ultimately ruled by dictators with the help of military. Army is the only disciplined body in these countries. Discipline was forced in communist countries. We have to be respectful to our elders. We must obey our seniors.

Discipline: Needed for success- Discipline is most needed for success in life. Discipline is a must whether we are at school or at home. It is equally necessary whether we are in the office or on the play ground. Our life, our society, our country or even the world will go astray without discipline. So some sort of discipline is required everywhere. There is order in Nature. Even small disorder in the world of nature leads to Chaos.

Need to learn discipline- Discipline has to be learnt at every walk of life. Childhood is the best period for it. The young mind learns things quickly and easily. At school, the students are taught to behave well. They are taught to respect their elders. Even on the playground the boys are taught to follow the rules of the games. So the student days are the most formative period in which the value of discipline can be learnt.

Indiscipline as great evil- A man is just like an animal without discipline. His life and actions become aimless. In the present age, indiscipline is a great evil. It is growing in every walk of life. Both the young and the old do lawless acts. Today crimes and thefts are on the increase. People seem to have forgotten the value of discipline. In India overcrowding in buses and trains is very common. Travelling without tickets is also a normal feature. Student indiscipline is the talk of the town.

Causes of Indiscipline- Lack of employment are a major cause of indiscipline and unrest. Over population makes the situation still worse. Overcrowding in schools and colleges causes indiscipline. Finally, poverty leads to disorder, unrest and indiscipline.

Conclusion-In fact, discipline is a good thing. It builds character. It develops strength and unity. It creates a sense of cooperation. So discipline must be taught from the very childhood. It is a key to success in life. The higher is the sense of discipline, the better it is for the people and the country.

Thursday, 14 February 2019

Essay on How to be Happy

Essay on How to be Happy

Essay on How to be Happy

Introduction : We must try to be happy in life. They are often restless and discontented people. They have no inner happiness. It is wrong to think that money brings happiness. The rich are not always  happy. So wealth cannot be a source of happiness. Even poor can be happy in life.

Good Health : There is some outward conditions which make us happy. First, good health is necessary for happiness. A man who suffers from some diseases can never be happy. But there are some sickly people who keep smiling faces. These are brave people who find happiness within despite their physical trouble. But everyone is not a hero. We must keep well and observe the laws of health to be happy.

Work to be happy : A man who has no work is rarely happy. Most idlers are grumblers. Such people are lazy to occupy their minds and their time. Workers are generally cheerful. A man who has a job of his choice finds great happiness in his work. Even if the work is not to our taste and liking, we must do it regularly. It will save us from thinking about its unpleasant aspects.

Healthy amusements and hobbies : We should have healthy amusements and hobbies to fill our leisure hours. All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy is a well known saying. A man who has not learnt to use his leisure time will not be happy. Games, sports, music, reading or any such thing keep us pleased. True friendship is one of the most precious treasures of pleasure and joy. A man who has a real friend is blessed.

Happiness lies within : But the true source of happiness lies within. Happiness does not depend on our circumstances. But they always depend on us. The kingdom of happiness is like the kingdom of heaven for you. A poor man may be happy in a hut whereas a rich man may be unhappy in his palace. A man must be unselfish, kind, humble and upright. Herein lays the secret of happiness.
"The mind in its own place and of itself
Can make a hell of heaven, a heaven of hell.”

Tuesday, 12 February 2019

Essay on The Pen is Mightier than the Sword for Students

Essay on The Pen is Mightier than the Sword for Students

Essay on The Pen is Mightier than the Sword for Students

The Pen is Mightier than the Sword
Introduction- There is a saying in Sanskrit that a King rules only his own kingdom while a scholar has a sway over the whole world. Of course since the beginning of the world the principle of 'might is right has been followed. The physically superior eliminates the weak. According to thinkers like Darwin only the strong have the right to live. Many kings and even religious sets have expanded their empires and spread their religions with the help of sword. Even today the nations having latest arms and ammunitions and nuclear bombs have the veto power in the U.N.O.

Pen, not the sword rules the heart- The human race anywhere in the world has no respect and no regard for these ferocious animals in the shape of human beings. The control of the mighty kings and dictators evaporates as soon as they are in their grave with the development of culture and civilization; it is the scholar writer, the poet who rules over the heart and mind of the common man. It is easy to have control through armed forces. But it is temporary aspect. In the long life of a nation or the world it is just a minor storm that rises and disappears. It is the scientist the playwright, the philosopher who has a sway and shines in the sky for ever guiding the fate of the common man.

Power of pen- The pen that wrote the Vedas was mightier than the sword of attackers that destroyed the human achievements again and again. By the power of pen, the great men like Valmiki, Newton and Milton were created. These great people have a permanent sway and guide the destiny of nations even today. Pen is omnipotent whereas sword kisses the dust from where it sprang because the pen stands for power to write. The sword stands for power to kill. The pen represents mind of man. It is powerful weapon in the hand of an intelligent person. The sword stands for the animal force in man. Both the pen and the sword are mighty weapons. But a writer uses the pen, a warrior uses the sword.

Conclusion- The pen is creative, the sword is destructive. The pen brings happiness. The sword causes suffering. The pen brings peace and knowledge. It also brings wisdom to people. It gives equal benefits to all. Intellectuals use the pen, warriors use the sword. So the pen is mightier than the sword.

Monday, 11 February 2019

Letter from Daughter to Father

Letter from Daughter to Father


Letter from Daughter to Father

My dear father,
      I am quite alright here and hope that you all would be in the same condition.
   You will be glad to know that our school will be closing for summer vacation by the end of this month. I shall be coming with my other friends in our school bus next day after the closing of the school.
    This time our teachers have given us too much homework to do. But I hope I shall be able to complete it as usual and yet enjoy plenty of time.
    To which hill stations and shall we be going this time Daddy? My friends say that Shimla is a beautiful place. We have seen it. Why not  go to Shimla this time?
    How is Sunita and Kavita? I remember them very much. Kiss them on my behalf. Please say “Namaste” to  mummy.
    I am now eagerly waiting for the school to be closed for the summer vocation.
 Yours loving daughter
Nidhi
Essay on The Swelling Middle Class for UPSC

Essay on The Swelling Middle Class for UPSC

Essay on The Swelling Middle Class for UPSC

A group of people in the middle of the societal hierarchy or who fall between the working class and upper class socio-economically is referred to as the middle class. The criteria for measuring she parameters of what makes the middle class is variable amongst different cultures. Middle class is normally defined by the level of education, wealth, environment of upbringing, social network, manners or values.

Middle class is defined by the 20th century American Marxist theoretician Louis C. Fraina as the class of independent small enterprises or owners of productive property that derives a livelihood.
Due to the rapid growth in emerging countries, the middle class at present occupies over half the world's population. The middle was earlier class characterized as those who had a reasonable amount of discretionary income. This income allows them to save almost a third of their income for discretionary spending besides paying for basic necessities like food and shelter. They can well spend on their children's education, consumer goods and improve their health care. The emerging middle class mostly comprises of people who aren't rich but are middle-class as per the standards of the developing world. According to this definition, there has been an increase in the number of middle class people in Asia in 2007-08. This increase in the middle class in many emerging countries has not been incremental but explosive in nature. With the flourishing international trade, poor countries get the maximum benefit from cheap labor and it is then when millions of poor start entering the middle class.

The estimated strength of the middle class in America is approximately 45% of the population while in Russia it is nearly 15%. The last decade has seen the fall in levels of absolute poverty and also an increase in average incomes which have led to the even distribution of the population thereby categorizing them as neither rich nor poor but they are considered to be in the middle of the income distribution. These new data, especially on prices and growth, suggest that the global middle class, numbering about 3.2 billion in 2016, may be considerably larger, by about 500 million people, than previous calculations suggested. In 2015, about 50 percent of U.S. adult residents were part of the middle class. Asian households, in particular, are now thought to be much richer, relatively speaking, than before. The middle-class expansion is expected to be broadly based, but heavily concentrated in Asia.

The vast majority (88 percent) of the next billion people in the middle class will be Asian Middle class has a vital role socially. It supports democracy and is progressive in nature. Particularly when middle class is strong, it will also influence economic development by actively participating in political process and expressing its support for political programs and electoral platforms. While developing countries are facing a rapidly expanding middle class, the same is shrinking in countries and is also incapable of defending the standards of living characterized for a middle lifestyle for centuries. Economic crisis has been too much of a burden on the middle-class and also their income has been shifted to the wealthier group.

Economists suggest the expansion in "sweet spot" is due to people entering the middle class in their millions and leaving poverty. A more beneficial "sweet spot" occurs for businesses when a significant mass starts earning the equivalent of over US$ 10 per day, thereby entering the global middle class. Companies that supply to the developed world's middle class markets might get attracted thereby. The size of the middle class is directly proportional to the economic growth, so the sweet spot also produces a "middle class effect" The growth of sweet spot when hit will also increase the middle class and this continues in a virtuous circle.

The expectations of middle class in developing countries are rising with the improvement in their economic situations. They have increasing concern for quality and are not merely satisfied with public services. The quality services demanded by the middle class is rather complicated to provide than simply letting them their access; which further leads to friction, conflicts and political upheaval. Also on one hand, middle class is rapidly expanding in developing countries but their size is shrinking in developed nations where they feel incapable of defending the standards of living that characterize a middle-class lifestyle since ages. Such unbearable situations have called for protests by people on the streets in Egypt, Israel and Spain. The economic crisis has overburdened the middle and working classes.

A radical shift in wealth distribution and economic and political balance of power seems to be effective by 2030 and the effects of the expanding middle class are soon to be seen. With the emergence of a new middle class that has spending power similar to developed nations, there will arise tremendous business opportunities as well.

Talking particularly about Asia, the trending higher middle class consumption caters to two most important countries, India and China. China's middle class is already large has even a larger one with 157 million people. Chinese market is hence the main attraction for retailers and businesses. With the recent emergence of China as the world's largest cell phone middle class is already large and United States market, it has become a home to around 700 million subscribers. As per the surveys, it’s suggestive that China's new middle class is sure to become the leading consumer of the world. At present, 150 million Chinese earn between US$ 10 and US$ 100 per day. If China continues to grow with the need, along with the economic reforms; it is expected that around 500 million Chinese will be entering the global middle class over the next decade. One billion people in China will be middle class by 2030, which would be 70% of its projected population.
India on the other hand has many impediments to sustained growth:
• An unstable regional neighborhood.
• Weak bureaucracy and judiciary.
• Social problems of poverty, migration and unemployment.
• The current economic crisis.
• Global resource constraints.
• Deficiencies in human capital and public infrastructure. 
• The middle-income trap.
Meanwhile there are several reasons to be optimistic as well about the accelerating Indian growth:
• Indian demographics and urbanization are favorable.
• India's emerging middle class can drive growth in the same manner as in other countries.
• Indian investment levels and manufacturing growth have started to pick up. . With fastest growing markets being its neighborhoods, India will benefit and will thereby add to Asia's dominance in growth.

India is soon going to dominate China in the race of middle class population that is increasing surprisingly. It is estimated that the strength of the middle class in India by 2020 will be 200 million and by 2030 it will be 475 million. This shift is seismic and is altering the condition of the society in terms of quality of life, urbanization, purchasing power, inflation, level of education, number of consumer goods and so on. The improved level of education is one of the prime reasons for this mass change. The growing awareness of people towards education is also aiding in the economic growth which is further increasing the per capita income of Indians. The economic reforms in 1991 are another reason for this colossal middle class population. 93% of population in 1985 lived below Rs.90, 000 a year which in 2005 reduced to 54%. Urbanization is also one of the outputs of middle class. The increasing buying power of the emerging middle class means growth in the consumer goods market. Lately there has been increase in the sale of consumer goods like mobile phones, LCDs and goods of personal care. An altogether new consumer market is going to be witnessed in India by 2025.

However, before earning the benefits of young and financially sound consumers, India needs to work really hard on infrastructure, healthcare and education sector. The financial system too needs modernization with India becoming the fifth largest consumer economy in the near future, both the world e well as the nation is going to benefit. Many people will surely be out of the poverty margin and the work for companies will increase leading to hiring of new employees in order to fulfill the growing demands of new customers.

With the growth in consumer demands, there will also be rise in prices of household commodities. More buying habit intends to less of saving and the rise in expenses will also hamper the lower middle class undesirably.
Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility in INDIA for UPSC

Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility in INDIA for UPSC


Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility in INDIA for UPSC

Corporate Social Responsibility in INDIA
It is recognized that the world over integrating social, environmental and ethical responsibilities into the governance of businesses ensures their long term success, competitiveness and sustainability This approach also reaffirms the view that businesses are an integral part of society, and have a critical and active role to play in the sustenance and improvement of healthy ecosystems, in fostering social inclusiveness and equity, and in upholding the essentials of ethical practices and good governance Many companies have been quick to sense this development, and have responded proactively while others have done so only when pushed.

In the past, businesses primarily concerned themselves with the economic results of their decisions. Today, however, businesses must also reflect on the legal, ethical, moral and social consequences of their decisions. It is important for businesses not only to provide products and services to satisfy the customer, but also to ensure that the business is not harmful to the environment in which it operates. In order for an organization to be successful, the business must be built on ethical practices. Companies are increasingly pressurized to behave ethically. This pressure comes from customers, consumers, governments, associations and the public at large.

This also makes business sense as companies with effective CSR, have image of socially responsible companies, achieve sustainable growth in their operations in the long run and their products and services are preferred by the customers. Although the roots of CSR lie in philanthropic activities (such as donations, charity, relief work, etc.) of corporations, globally, the concept of CSR has evolved immensely. It now encompasses all related concepts such as triple bottom line, corporate citizenship, philanthropy, strategic philanthropy, shared value, corporate sustainability and business responsibility.

The term 'Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)'came about in the late 1960's and early 1970's after many multinational corporations used it to describe organizational activities that impacted their responsibility towards the greater environment. Today, Corporate Social Responsibility is no longer defined by how much money a company contributes to charity, but by its overall involvement in activities that improve the quality of people's lives. It has come up as a significant subject matter in the international business community and is progressively becoming a mainstream activity. There is mounting recognition of the momentous effect the activities of the private sector have on the workforce, clientele, the society, the environment, competitors, business associates, investors, shareholders, governments and others groups. It is also becoming progressively clear that organizations can contribute to their individual wealth and to overall community wealth by taking into account the effect they have on the entire globe when making decisions One of the more contemporary definitions is from the World Bank Group, stating, "Corporate social responsibility is the commitment of businesses to contribute to sustainable economic development by working with employees, their families, the local community and society at large, to improve their lives in ways that are good for business and for development."

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) defines CSR as "the continuing commitment by business to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the community and society at large."
CSR originated in philanthropy. Currently it supports projects external to the normal business activities of a company that are not directed towards making a profit. Typically, such projects have a strong developmental approach and utilize company resources to benefit non-profit organizations and communities.

It is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspects of their operations. This obligation is seen to extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply with legislation and sees organizations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the quality of life for employees and their families as well as for the local community and society at large.

The protection of the environment has become the center stage of many humanitarian organizations. Most of these humanitarian organizations argue that the protection of the environment should be the key concern of any corporation. This is because the environment is the only natural resource that is invaluable to the human race. The issue of handling industrial waste by many corporations has always been at the forefront of many environmental organizations. This is because corporations are guilty on more than one accord of irresponsibly handling their waste. Evidence such as the great pacific garbage patch exists to show how many corporations are not handling the dumping of waste seriously. The great pacific garbage patch is a myriad of human waste that has found its way into the ocean after being improperly dumped. The great pacific garbage patch leads to problems such as loss of aquatic life and the contamination of the water not mentioning the corporate introduction of many pollutants into the water.

Corporate social responsibility makes it clear that it is certainly unethical for these corporations to be making profits at the expense of the environment and other aspects of the human life. It is therefore viewed as a control mechanism to ensure that multi-corporations are responsible for their actions.
The 21st century is characterized by unprecedented challenges and opportunities, arising from globalization, the desire for inclusive development and the imperatives of climate change. Indian business, which is today viewed globally as a responsible component of the ascendancy of India, is poised now to take on a leadership role in the challenges of our times. Companies too have been the target of those perturbed by this uneven development and as a result, their contributions to society are under severe scrutiny. With increasing awareness of this gap between the haves and the have notes, this scrutiny will only increase over time and societal expectations will be on the rise.

India is a country of myriad contradictions and diversity. On the one hand, it has grown to be one of the largest economies in the world, and an increasingly important player in the emerging global order, on the other hand, it is still home to the largest number of people living in absolute poverty (even if the proportion of poor people has decreased) and the largest number of undernourished children. What emerges is a picture of uneven distribution of the benefits of growth which many believe, is the root cause of social unrest.

CSR in India has traditionally been seen as a philanthropic activity; it was an activity that was performed but not deliberated. In other words, it is referred to as teleological ethics. Though it still remains within the philanthropic space, but the Companies Act, 2013 has introduced the idea of CSR to the forefront and through its disclose-or-explain mandate, is promoting greater transparency and disclosure. It has moved from institutional building educational, research and cultural) to community development through various projects. Also, with global influences and with communities becoming more active and demanding, there appears to be a discernible trend, that while CSR remains largely restricted to community development, it is getting more strategic in nature (that is, getting linked with business) than philanthropic, and a large number of companies are reporting the activities they are undertaking in this space in their official websites, annual reports, sustainability reports and even publishing of CSR reports.

This is evident from some of the notable contributions made by companies in Indian society. Ashok Leyland operates a Fun Bus in Chennai and New Delhi. This bus, equipped with a hydraulic lift, takes differently able children and those from orphanages and corporation primary schools on a day's picnic. Bharat Petroleum Corporation's rain water harvesting project "Bond", in association with the Oil Industries Development Board, selects draught-stricken villages to turn them from "water-scarce to water-positive". The Computer Based Functional Literacy (CBFL) initiative for providing adult literacy by Tata Consultancy Services has benefitted approx. 1.2 lakh people. This program is available in nine Indian languages.

As the business environment gets increasingly complex and stakeholders become local about their expectations, good CSR practices can only bring in greater benefits. Globally, the notion of CSR and sustainability seems to be converging, as corporate social responsibility and sustainability are so closely entwined, it is a company's commitment to its stakeholders to conduct business in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner that is transparent and ethical. Thus, a major corporate thrust toward ethical and socially responsible behavior is to go green.

Sunday, 10 February 2019

Essay on Barack Hussain Obama 1200 words

Essay on Barack Hussain Obama 1200 words

Essay on Barack Hussain Obama 1200 words

Introduction : Barack Hussain Obama the candidate of Democratic Party has been elected as a 44th President of America on November 4, 2008. He defeated John McCain in the general election and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. He is also the first black President of U.S.A.

Essay on Barack Hussain Obama

Victory speech : In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Grant Park in Chicago, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America." Born in Hawaii, Obama will be the first U.S. President born outside the contiguous United States. He also will be fifth youngest President at a date of accession, and the first since Lincoln whose primary political base is Illinois.

Birth and parentage : Obama was born on August 4, 1961 at the Kap 'Olani Medical Centre for women and children in Honolulu. His parents met in 1960 while attending the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student. The couple married on February 2, 1961, they separated when Obama was two year old and subsequently divorced in 1964. Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982. His name was kept on the base of his father's name. The meaning of Barack is fortunate in the regional language of Kenya.

Education : Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years. Then he transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations. Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. After completing his graduation he worked for a year at the Business International Corporation and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. At the end of his first year, he was selected, based on his grades and a writing competition, as an editor of the Harvard Law Review. In February 1990, in his second year, he was elected president of the Law Review, a full-time volunteer position functioning as editor-in-chief and supervising the Law Review's staff of eighty editors. After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago. The publicity from his election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations. In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.

In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father. It was the first book of Obama written by him.

He is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. Obama worked as a community organizer and practiced as a civil rights attorney before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he announced his campaign for the U.S. Senate in January 2003, won a primary victory in March 2004, and was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the votes to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.

As a senator : Obama was sworn as a senator on January 4, 2005. Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected. He is the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus. CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005-2007, and the National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007. In 2005 he was ranked sixteenth, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth. Obama resigned his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period. His immediate successor will be named by Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich.
On June 3, 2008 Senater Obama, alongwith Senater Thomas, R. Carper, Tom Coburn and John Mccain introduced follow up legislation strengthening transparency and accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008. In December 2006 President Bush signed into Law the Democratic Republic of the Cargo Relief, Security and Democracy Promotion Act marking the first Federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.
Candidacy for President : On February 10, 2007 Obama announced his candidacy for President election of U.S.A. in front of the Old State Capital Building in Spring field Illinois. A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party Presidential Primaries. After a few initial contests the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and with the race remaining nearly tied through the primary process.

On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead. On June 3, with all states counted Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee. On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7. From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee. On August 23, 2008, Obama selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate. At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate. On August 28 Obama delivered a speech to the 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.

Victorious Obama : On November 4, 2008 the result of Presidential election was declared Obama got Electoral College votes 349 while McCain 162 only. Obama got 96% of the Black votes, 43% of the white votes, 78% of youth votes and the majority of almost every ethnic group and even Jews voted for him.

Conclusion : Obama met his wife Michelle Robinson in June 1989. Soon they began dating and engaged in 1991. They married on October 3, 1992. The couple's first, daughter Malia Ann was born in 1998 and second daughter Natasha (Sasha) in 2001. Obama's family is Christian (Protestant) by religion. Their residence is at Kenwood in Chicago. Obama is very fond of playing basketball. He is non smoker. Obama has written two famous books Dreams from my father in 1995 and The Audacity of Hope in 2006.

Saturday, 9 February 2019

jawaharlal nehru essay with headings

jawaharlal nehru essay with headings

Essay on Jawahar Lal Nehru with Headings

Introduction- Jawaharlal Nehru was an Indian statesman who the first and longest was serving Prime Minister of India. Jawahar Lal Nehru was one of the leading figures in Indian Independence Movement. Jawaharlal Nehru was the son of wealthy barrister and politician Motilal Nehru. He was one of the principal leaders of India's Independence Movement in the 1930s and 1940s. Nehru established parliamentary government and became noted for his "neutra list" policies in foreign affairs.

Early Life- Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru and Swaroop Rani in a Kashmir Pandit family in Allahabad, U.P. His date of birth was 14 November, 1889. He was educated in India and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boy's school Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. During his time in Britain, Nehru was also known as Joe Nehru.
On 7 February 1916, Nehru married sixteen year old Kamala Kaul. In the first year of the marriage Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini Nehru raised the flag of Independent India in New Delhi on 15 August, 1947, the day India achieved Independence. He was the first Prime Minister of Free India. His daughter India Gandhi and grandson Rajiv Gandhi also served as Prime Minister of India.
Political Career- Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehru's residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory. Nehru's appreciate of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 19. In 1918, he was selected member for congress committee. He went to jail many times. He spends more than 9 years in Jail. In 1938, he was elected president of national planning committee. In 1945, he joined 'Shimla Conference'. In 1947, he takes oath for Prime Minister's position. He died in 27 May, 1964.
Nehru's Economic Policies- Nehru Presided over the introduction of a modified, Indian version of state planning and control over the economy. Creating the Planning Commission of India, Nehru drew up the first five-year plan in 1951. Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries. While encouraging the construction of large dams, irrigation works and the generations of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched India’s program to harness nuclear energy.

His Foreign Policy- On the International scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non alignment. Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first year of freedom from British rule. Both the United States and the Soviet Union competed to make India an ally throughout the cold war.
Education and Social Reform-Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for India's children and youth, believing it essential for India's future progress. He established many institutions of higher learning, including AIIMS, IIT, IIM and NIT. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony increasing the representation of minorities in government.

Conclusion- Nehru was a charismatic and radical leader, advocating complete independence for India from the British Empire. Throughout his life, Nehru was also an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long standing challenges of economic development could be addressed by poorer nations. Nehru was an extraordinary man. He was a first Prime Minister of India, emperor of nation's people, helmsman of congress and forerunner of peace.

Friday, 8 February 2019

Essay on A Rainy day with Quotation for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Essay on A Rainy day with Quotation for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10


Essay on A Rainy day with Quotation for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

A Rainy day
Introduction- We welcome the rain after the summer heat. During summer the earth is dry and roads are full of dust. The hot wind blows and the sun is very strong. On a rainy day, it rains all day long. Dark clouds gather in the sky. A pleasant breeze blows. The sun is behind the clouds. Sometimes it rains heavily and sometimes it rains lightly.

Joy for children- A rainy day is a day of joy for children. They go out of their houses. They play on roads. They run here and there in the rain. Grown up people go out with umbrellas. The road side ditches are full of water. So a rainy day is a day of rain and pleasure.

Beautiful scenes- A rainy day creates beautiful scenes. The attendance of students in schools and colleges is thin. Some students are half drenched. Some are fully drenched. Everybody talks about the rain. The street look flooded. Most of the shops are closed in town. School boys enjoy the rainy day most. They do not care for the cold and cough. So rainy day is a day of joy and freedom for children.

Some problems- A rainy day brings some problems to us. Most of us do not have umbrellas or rain coats. But we may have to go out. Going out is very difficult. We do not get rickshaws easily. We may not go far on foot. We soon get wet. We often look up to the sky to stop rain. A rainy day causes some suffering to the poor. The poor people depend on daily work for food. They may not get work on such a day. Besides, their houses may leak. Thus a rainy is a day of trouble for such poor people.

It is useful - A rainy day has its use also. Farmers are very happy. They welcome rain. A rainy day is day of pleasure for them. Trees and plants look washed out. The fields are green, frogs and other creatures produce music. The rainbow sometimes appears in the sky. Those who live in well built houses sit by the window side and enjoy the sweet music and of the rainfall. They say to themselves.
"How beautiful is the rain
After the dust and heat"
There are three chief seasons in India. They are the summer season, the winter season rainy season. The rainy season is very important to the people of India. India is an agricultural country. The crops depend on the rainy season. A good monsoon means prosperity. But an excess of rains bring flood. Flood destroys the crop. But the failure of monsoon causes drought and famine.

Rainy season in India- The rainy season starts in India sometimes in June. Before it breaks the sun looks very strong. The heat is too much for us. The sky is cloudless. The earth eagerly waits for rain. The air is hot, we can find hot waves. At many places we do not get even drinking water; the heat problems for both and animals.

Advent of Monsoon-With the arrival of the monsoon, we find a sudden change in the weather. Clouds form in the sky. They soon turn into heavy rain. The rainy season continues till about the end of September. Everybody welcomes rain after the summer season. In the rainy season the air becomes cool. The sun is no longer strong. The clouds make the whole atmosphere pleasant. The land becomes green with grass and plants. Roadside ditches, ponds and rivers are filled with water.

Future of Indian agriculture- The future of Indian agriculture fully depends on the rainy season. Farmers wait for rain. They look at their dying crops on earth. They expect rain when they see black clouds in any corner of the sky. When it rains they become happy. They move out of their houses. They go to their fields and think about paddy plantation. They grow maize and other crops during the rains.

Conclusion- The rainy season gives us a pleasant relief from the heat. But it has some disadvantages also. A large number of insects appear. We can find fly ants, mosquitoes and other such insects and cholera break out. Travelling during the rains troublesome but children enjoy this season. They play, jump and sing in rain. So every Indian welcomes rain. They know that country's economy depends on it. Such is the life of an Indian during the rains.