Wednesday, 8 January 2020

10 Lines on Banana Fruit in Urdu Language

10 Lines on Banana Fruit in Urdu Language

10 Lines on Banana Fruit in Urdu Language

کیلا کمبوڈیا کا قومی پھل ہے۔
کیلا ایک بہت صحتمند پھل ہے۔
کیلے کا سائنسی نام موسیٰ اکومینٹا ہے۔
کیلے کی 70 سی ادھک پرجاتی ہیں۔
یہ سب سے زیادہ کھائے جانے والے پھلوں میں سے ایک ہے۔
کیلے کا درخت 25 فٹ تک بڑھ سکتا ہے۔
اس کی پتی 3 میٹر لمبی اور چوڑائی 2 فٹ ہے۔
کیلے کا گودا بہت نرم اور ہموار ہوتا ہے۔
اسے کھلا رکھنا ، اس سے سیاہ داغ پڑتے ہیں۔
کیلے آٹے اور چپس بنانے میں استعمال ہوتا ہے۔
کیلا فائبر کا ایک اچھا ذریعہ ہے۔

Wednesday, 25 December 2019

Essay on God in Tamil தமிழில் கடவுள் பற்றிய கட்டுரை

Essay on God in Tamil தமிழில் கடவுள் பற்றிய கட்டுரை

Essay on God in Tamil தமிழில் கடவுள் பற்றிய கட்டுரை

குறிப்பு : 1. முன்னுரை, 2. கடவுள் ஒருவர் உண்டு என் பது, 3. கடவுளின் குணங்கள், 4. நமது கடமை, 5. முடிவுரை.

கடலால் சூழப்பட்ட இவ்வுலகில் பலதிறச் சமயங் கள் நிலவுகின்றன. இவற்றுள் நமக்கு அதிகமாகப் புல னாவன சைவம், வைணவம், பௌத்தம், ஜைனம், கிறிஸ் தவம், மகம்மதியம் என்னும் மதங்களே ஆகும். இம்மதங் களில் பல உட்பிரிவுகள் இருப்பினும், இவையே கூடமாக நடைமுறையில் சாணப்பட்டு வருகின்றன. இம்மதங் களேயன்றி, எம்மதத்தையும் சாராத சில பொது மதங் களும் உண்டு. இத்தகைய மதங்கள் பல்வகை நற்கொள் கைகளைப் போதிக்கின்றன. அவற்றுள் மிக முக்கிய மானது எல்லாப் பொருளையும் ஆக்கி அளித்து அழிக் கும் ஒரு பொருள் உண்டு என்பதேயாகும் அதனை மேற் கொண்டு ஒழுகுபவர் ஆஸ்திகர் என்றும், அப்படிப்பட்ட ஒரு பொருள் இல்லை என்று கூறுபவர் நாஸ்திகர் என்றும் கூறப்படுவர். ' அப்படி எல்லாவற்றிற்கும் காரணமாய் இருப்பது ஒரு பொருள் என்றால், அதனை ஏன் அரன், அரி, அருகன், ஏசு , அல்லா என்று வழங்குகின்றனர் ?' என்று ஒரு சிலர் வினவலாம். அங்ஙனம் வினவுவோர்க் குத் திருப்திகரமான பதில் அளிக்கலாம். அந்த ஒரு பொருள் பல பெயர்களையுடையது. இதனாலே தான் அந்த ஒரு பொருளின் தன்மையை நன்கு அனுபவத்தால்
உணர்ந்து, "ஒரு நாமம் , ஓர் உருவம் ஒன்றும் இல்லார்க்கு ஆயிரம் திருநாமம் பாடி,'' என்றும், "பேராயிரம் பரவி வானோர் ஏத்தும் பெம்மானை' என்றும் பெரியோர் கூறியுள்ளார். பேர் பலவாயினும், பொருள் ஒன்றே யாகும். உதாரணமாகத் தண்ணீராகிய ஒரு பொருளை எடுத்துக்கொள்வோம் : தமிழில் அதனைப் புனல் என் றும், ஆங்கிலத்தில் வாட்டர் என்றும், தெலுங்கில் நீளு என்றும், வடமொழியில் ஜலம் என்றும், இந்துஸ்தானியில் பாணி என்றும், மலையாளத்தில் வெள்ளம் என்றும் வழங்கி வருகின்றனர். இப்பெயர்கள் தண்ணீர் என்னும் ஒரு பொருளையே குறிக்கின்றன அல்லவா? இது போலவே அந்த முழுமுதற் பொருளுக்கும் பல மொழிகளில் பல மதங்களில் பல பெயர்கள் வழங்குகின்றன. அப்படி வழங்கும் பெயர்களுள் கடவுள் என்னும் பெயரும் ஒன்று. நாமும் அப்பெயரையே நமது கட்டுரைக்கு இட்டு, அக்கடவுளைக் குறித்து ஒரு சிறிது கூறுவோம்.
கடவுள் இல்லை என்னும் கொள்கையை நல்ல அறிவுடைய ஒருவன் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளல் இயலாது. கடவுள் இல்லையென்பவர், " எல்லாம் இயற்கையே செய்து முடிக்கிறது. அதனைச் செய்ய ஒரு பொருள் வேண்டுவது இல்லை,'' என்னும் விதண்டாவாதம் செய்வர். அவரது விதண்டவாதம் நிலைபெறாது. எங்ஙனம் எனில், காட் டில் மரங்கள் வளர்ந்திருக்கின்றன. அம்மரங்கள் எங்க னம் உண்டாயின எனின், 'வித்தினின்றும் உண்டாயின்,' என்னும் பதில் கிடைக்கும். அவ்வித்து எதனின்றும் தோன்றியதெனில், 'மரத்தினின்றும் தோன்றியது,' என்னும் விடையே வரும். இப்படி இவ்விரண்டையுமே கூறிக்கொண்டிருந்தால், இவற்றுள் எது முன் தோன்றி யது என்பதை மக்களால் அறிய இயலாது. ஆகையால் அம்மரத்துக்கு முதற்காரணமாகிய வித்தை முதன் முதல் தோற்றுவித்தவன் ஒருவன் இருக்கவேண்டும் என்பது சிற்றறிவினருக்கும் புலனாகிறது. அவ்வொருவனே கடவு ளாம். ஆகவே, உலகில் காணப்படும் பலதிற இயற்கைப் பொருள்களையும், காட்சிப் பொருள்களையும் கண்கூடாகக் காண்பதனாலேயே கடவுள் உண்டு என்பதை நாம் உணர லாம். இதனாலன்றோ , " ஞாலமே கரியாக (கடவுளே, நீ உண்டு என்பதற்கு உலகமே சாட்சியாக) நான் உனை நச்சி னேன்," என்று ஒரு பெரியார் கூறியுள்ளார்.
புகை கண்ட இடத்து நெருப்புண்டு என்று அறி வதைப் போல, இயற்கைப் பொருள்களைக் கண்டவிடத் துக் கடவுள் ஒருவர் உண்டு என்பதைத் தீர்மானித்தல் வேண்டும். 'ஆனால், புகை வந்த இடத்தைத் தேடிக் கண்டவிடத்து ஆங்கு நெருப்பைக் காண்கிறோம். அது போல, இயற்கையில் கடவுளை நேரிற் காணவில்லையே!' என்று சிலர் சந்தேகிக்கலாம். கடவுளைக் காணுதல் எளி தில் முடியும் காரியம் அன்று. அதற்கான முயற்சி யாகிய பக்தி, வைராக்கியம் முதலியன நம்மிடம் பொருந் தியபோது கடவுளை அட்டியின்றிக் காணலாம். பாலைப் பார்த்து, 'இதில் வெண்ணெய் உண்டு; நெய் உண்டு ,' என்று கூறினால், ' அவை இதில் இல்லையே!' என்று எவ ரேனும் கூறுவாரா? கூறார். ஏனெனில், அவர்களுக்கு அப்பாலைக் காய்ச்சித் தயிராக்கிக் கடைந்து வெண்ணெய் எடுத்து உருக்கினால் நெய்யாகும் என்பது தெரியும். அது போலவே கடவுளைக் காணும் விருப்பமுடைய ஒருவன் வைராக்கியம் என்னும் கோல் நட்டு, அறிவாகிய கயிற் றைக்கொண்டு கடைந்தால், கடவுளாகிய வெண்ணெய் கிடைக்கும் என்ற பொருளில், திருநாவுக்கரசர் என்னும் பெரியார்,
என்று கடவுளைக் காணும் உபாயத்தைத் தெரிவிப்பா ராயினர்.
இத்தகைய கடவுளுக்குக் குலம், குணம், குறி, புலம் , தனக்கென ஒரு பற்று , குற்றம், மைந்தர் , மனை, சஞ்சலம் முதலியன இல்லை. இதனாலே தான் பெரியோர்களும் கடவுளின் தன்மையைக் கூறவந்தபோது, ஆதியும் அந்த மும் இல்லா அரும்பெருஞ் சோதி,' என்றும், 'தாயுமிலி தந்தையிலி தான் தனியன் காணேடி,' என்றும் , ' இப்படி யன், இந்நிறத்தன், இவ்வண்ணத்தன், இவன் இறைவன் என்று எழுதிக் காட்ட ஒண்ணாது,'' என்றும் கூறிப்போந் தனர். அவன் அங்கு இங்கு எனாதபடி எங்கும் பிரகாச மாய் ஆனந்த பூர்த்தியாகி அருளொடு நிறைந்து விளங்கு பவன் ; நெடிய பொருளில் நெடியவனாயும், குறிய பொரு ளில் குறியவனாயும், இப்படி ஒவ்வொரு பொருளிலும் பொருந்தி நிற்பதே அவனது சிறந்த குணமாம். ஆனால் அவன் உயிர்களின் பொருட்டு ஐசுவரியம், வீரியம், கீர்த்தி, சம்பத்து, ஞானம், வைராக்கியம் என்னும் ஆறு குணங்களையுடையவன் என்றும், தன் வயத்தனாதல், தூய உடம்பினன் ஆதல், இயற்கை உணர்வினனாதல், முற்று முணர்தல், இயல்பாகவே பாசங்களினின்று நீங்குதல், பேரருள் உடமை என்றேனும் ; அணிமா, மகிமா, கரிமா, லகிமா, பிராப்தி, பிரகாமியம், ஈசத்துவம், வசித் துவம் என்றேனும் ; அறிவு, காட்சி, வீரியம், இன்பம், நாமமின்மை, கோத்திரமின்மை, ஆயுளின்மை, அழியா இயல்பு உடைமை என்றேனும் வழங்கும் எட்டுக் குணங்களையுடையவன் என்றும், கடவுளுக்குக் குணங் களை ஏற்றிக் கூறுவது அவரவர் புனைந்துரையேயன்றி மெய்யுரையாகாது.
இங்ஙனம் குணம், குறி , பேர், ஊர் ஒன்றும் இல னாய்ப் பார்க்கும் இடமெங்கும் ஒரு நீக்கமற நிறைந்திருக் கின்ற பரிபூரணானந்த வடிவினனாகிய கடவுளுக்கு நாம் செய்ய வேண்டுபவை பல உள. அவற்றுள் ஒன்று , அவன் நம்மை விரும்பி ஏற்று ஆட்கொள்ளும்படி செய் தலேயாகும். அப்படி அவன் நம்மை ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளு வதற்கு நாம் சில முறைகளைக் கையாள வேண்டும். அவையாவன : அவனுக்கு வெறுப்பான செய்கைகளை மேற்கொள்ளாது, விருப்பமான காரியங்களையே மேற் கொண்டு ஒழுகுதலும், அவன் வெறுப்பனவாகிய பொய், பொறாமை, வெகுளி, இன்னாச்சொல் முதலிய தீய குணங் களை அறவே ஒழித்து, பிறருக்கு இதம் செய்தல், ஜீவ காருணியம், அடக்கம், ஒழுக்கம், மெய்ம்மொழி புகலுதல் முதலிய நற்குணங்களை மேற்கொண்டு ஒழுகுதலுமாம். மேலும், அவனை என்றும், எப்பொழுதும் மறவாது துதித்தல் வேண்டும். அவ்வாறு செய்ய இயலாதேல், காலையும் மாலையுமாவது மறவாது துதிக்க வேண்டும். இப்படிச் செய்தால் கடவுள் நம்மைக் கைவிடான்.
ஆகவே, எவ்வளவு கற்ற போதும் கடவுள் ஒருவன் உண்டு என்னும் கொள்கையை மறவாது, அவன் விரும் பும் காரியங்களையே மேற்கொண்டு, வெறுக்கும் விஷயங்க ளைத் தள்ளி நடக்க வேண்டும். "கற்றதனால் ஆய பயனென்கொல் வாலறிவன் நற்றாள் தொழாஅர் எனின் ?"

Friday, 29 November 2019

 Write a letter to your friend inviting him to spend holidays on the hill-station with you.

Write a letter to your friend inviting him to spend holidays on the hill-station with you.

Write a letter to your friend inviting him to spend summer vacation with you at a hill station

472, The Mall,
Shimla,
12 April 20XX

Dear Friend Raj,

It gives me pleasure to learn that your school will close on May 16 for the summer vacation. My parents have asked me to invite you to spend your holidays with us.

I cannot forget the heat of plains when we were studying together at Patiala. The moment my father was transferred, I had a desire to invite you at Shimla. It is, you know, the best hill-station. It has various picnic spots such as Jakhu, Prospects hill, Glenn, Chedwich Fals etc. When I go to school in the morning, you will study at home. After I return from school, we shall be going for outing. In the evening, we shall go to the Mall and return home late in the night. Confirm your program by return of post.

Yours sincerely,
Aman

Saturday, 16 November 2019

A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.

A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.

In this article, we are providing a sample letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons so that student may learn how to write a formal letter refusing an invitation.

A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.

Oaklands,
57 Fenton St.,
Guildford,
Surrey.
27th April 2019
Subject: A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.
Dear Betty,
Thank you very much for inviting me to your birthday party, but I'm afraid I shan't be able to come.

We have had so much to do at the office this week that Mr Simpson has asked me to work overtime for a few days. I promised I would and now there's nothing I can do about it. I'll be thinking of you when I'm typing piles of letters!

I hope your party is a success and I wish you many happy returns.
Yours sincerely,
A letter expressing Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

A letter expressing Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

A letter expressing Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

The Star Hotel, 
14 Preston Ave., 
London, S.W.5,
England.
15th Aug. 19

Subject: Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

Dear Madeline,
I arrived in London last night and your friend Peter met me at the station. I'm glad he was there because I don't think I should ever have found my hotel alone.

Although I haven't seen much yet, I think I'm going to enjoy myself here. Last night Peter and I went for a short' walk. I had never imagined London was quite so big. We walked for over two hours and I had to take a train to get back to the hotel!

I'll write again in a few days' time and I'm sure I'll have a lot to tell you.
Yours sincerely,
A letter regretting that a friend of yours cannot come with you on an excursion

A letter regretting that a friend of yours cannot come with you on an excursion

A letter regretting that a friend of yours cannot come with you on an excursion and expressing the hope that he will be able to come another time.

18 Middleton St., 
Bloomsbury, 
London, W.C.I.
14th June, 19
Dear Tom,
Your card arrived this morning and you can imagine how disappointed I was to hear that you have caught another dreadful cold. You could at least have waited for a day or two!
I saw Ron last night and we made final arrangements for tomorrow's excursion. We'll be setting off very early. I promise I won't oversleep this time! However nice the weather is, the trip won't be the same without you.
I hope you won't be too miserable in bed and that you'll be able to come with us next week as usual.
Yours sincerely
Jack 

Tuesday, 12 November 2019

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan : Kocheril Raman Narayanan also known as K. R. Narayanan was the tenth President of India. In this essay we will know about K.R. Narayanan's early life, family, Education and Political Career.

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan

Shri K.R. Narayanan was the tenth President of India. He took over this responsible position after the retirement of Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, the former President. He was sworn in as President of India on 25th July 1997. Even before that he had been holding the key position of Vice-President since 1992.

Essay on K. R. Narayanan
Our brilliant administrator and a great scholar was born in a small village at Uzhoor of Kottayam District of Kerala on October 27, 1920. Though he was brought up in poverty but due to his hard labour he rose to the highest position of President of the largest democracy in the world. He topped in the examination of Matriculation. In the same way he passed M.A. in English literature from the University of Travancore, Kerala in 1943 and stood first class first. He got married to Shrimati Usha Narayanan on June 8, 1951. He has two daughters.

After completing his education he searched for a job. The Diwan of Travancore offered him a clerical job but he refused. He came to Delhi and worked for sometimes in the Commerce and Industry' a weekly magazine. After sometime he worked as journalist in 'The Hindu' in Madras and ‘The Times of India' Bombay during 1944-45. He became a London correspondent of 'Social Welfare' a weekly published from Bombay and edited by Shri K.M. Munshi during 1945-48. It was due to journalism that he got the Tata Scholarship for higher studies in London school of Economics. After his return to India he joined Indian Foreign Services in 1949 and served with the Indian Mission in Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Australia. He was India's ambassador to 

  1. Thailand during 1967-69 
  2. Turkey during 1973-75
  3. the Peoples Republic of China (1976-78) and 
  4. United States of America (1980-84).
He held many important positions in Ministry of External Affairs. Director in 

  1. East Asia Division 
  2. External Publicity Division; 
joint Secretary in Policy Planning Division; Additional Secretary in 1975-76; Secretary in 1976. From 1954 to 1955 he was on leave from the Indian Foreign Services and taught Economic Administration at Delhi School of Economics and headed the Orientation centre for Foreign Technicians.

He became Vice-Chancellor of Jawahar Lal Nehru University Delhi in 1979-80. Afterwards when Smt. Indira Gandhi rose to power, he was sent to U.S.A. as an ambassador. In 1984 he won the election as a congress candidate from Kerala State and joined Lok Sabha as State Minister in the Ministry of Planning, Foreign Affairs, Science and Technology. In 1991 he again won the election but could not enter the Ministry of Shri Narsimha Rao. On July 29 in 1992 the Ruling Party declared him Vice President. He won the favour of opposition parties also and he was sworn in as Vice President on August 21, 1992. After five years he rose to the highest position of President of India.

He was awarded Honarary Doctorate degree by the University of Toledo in U.S.A. in 1987. He is author of many articles on literature, Politics and international Affairs. He wrote three books 'India and America', Essays in Understanding, Images and Insight and, 'Non-alignment in Contemporary International Relation', jointly with Prof. K.P. Misra. His favourite hobbies are reading and writing poetry and literature and walking. He is a man of versatile abilities. As the President of India he led the country to the soaring heights of progress.

Monday, 4 November 2019

Essay on Technology and rural Development

Essay on Technology and rural Development

Essay on Technology and rural Development

Introduction – The necessity and importance of rural uplift 
The present condition of Indian villages 
Methods of improvement. 
  1. Education of the villagers 
  2. Modernisation of agriculture 
  3. Development  of cottage industries. 
  4. Provision of medical aid. 
  5. Reforms in social life. 
  6. Other reforms 
Conclusion – The Government and the people should make joint efforts.
India lives in her villages. If we want to see real India, we must go to the villages. About 80 percent of the population of India lives in the villages. They are the backbone of the country. Without improvement in their day to day life the country cannot march ahead. So the progress of the village is the progress of the country.

The condition of villages is pitiable. There is extreme poverty everywhere. The customs and traditions of the villagers are quite out of date. They are ignorant and superstitious. Though agriculture is their main occupation, yet it does not provide even two full meals a day to many of them. Illiteracy is widespread. Villages have become the home of epidemics and other disease. They lack medical facilities. Even in this scientific age, there are many villages which are cut off from their neighbouring towns. Thus in villages we find only suffering, disease, poverty and ignorance.

For real rural reconstruction, different problems must be solved at one and the same time. Piecemeal and half-hearted efforts will make no difference to the life of villagers. The following improvements must be made without further delay.

Ignorance is the root cause of many evils. It is the outcome of illiteracy. Hence villagers must be educated. More and more schools should be made free and compulsory. Arrangements should be made for adult education. For this, night schools should be started. Education of girls is as important as the education of boys. Girl’s schools should also be opened.

Poverty is the greatest curse in these days. To improve the economic condition of the villagers, agriculture must be modernized. They should be made to use better seeds, chemical fertilizers and scientific methods of agriculture. The yield per acre of land can only be increased through mechanized farming. For this, land-holdings should be consolidated. Better irrigation facilities should be made available. Through these measures, production is bound to increase. Increased production will lead to better economic condition.

Agriculture is a seasonal occupation. So in many months of the year, farmers remain idle. Village industries should be developed to keep them busy during idle months. It is only through cottage industries that the problem of part-time unemployment and total unemployment can be solved. This will enable the villagers to supplement their agricultural income.

Poor economic condition has affected the health of the villagers. The sanitation in villages is bad. We find pools of dirty water. The houses are mostly ill-ventilated and have no sanitary arrangement. So the conditions favourable for the breeding of germs of various diseases are always-present. Moreover, our villages lack medical facilities. Hospitals should be opened to provide medical aid. Gaon Sabhas should be made responsible for maintaining healthy sanitary conditions. This is necessary for rural uplift.

Villagers are the victims of various social evils. Litigation is a pastime for them. They remain under debt from generation to generation. As has been well said, ‘an Indian farmer is born in debt, lives in debt and dies in debt’. They are superstitious. They are slaves of customs and traditions. Social reforms must form an integral part of any programme of rural uplift.

Villagers do not have adequate means of recreation. This is a great handicap of village life. Cheap and healthy methods of enjoyment should be provided. Radio and T.V. sets should be fixed at public places. Public reading rooms and libraries should be opened. Provision for games and sports must be made. Such means of recreation will provide good diversion for villagers in their spare time.

The problem of rural uplift is gigantic. Without the active co-operation of the people and the Government, the condition of villages cannot be improved. Let the Government and the people make joint efforts to improve the condition of Indian villages. Our beloved Prime Minister, late Shri Rajiv Gandhi, launched the “Jawahar Rozgar Yojna” and a chapter has now been added to the Indian constitution to make Panchayati Raj a reality. In this way, it is hoped, real power will come to the people and power- brokers and vested interests will be done away with. Therein lies the salvation of our country.     

Wednesday, 23 October 2019

ESSAY ON AN OPEN BOOK EXAMINATION OR YOUR SUGGESTIONS FOR THE REFORM OF THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM

ESSAY ON AN OPEN BOOK EXAMINATION OR YOUR SUGGESTIONS FOR THE REFORM OF THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM

ESSAY ON AN OPEN BOOK EXAMINATION OR YOUR SUGGESTIONS FOR THE REFORM OF THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM

Examination are a necessary evil. They cannot be completely done away with. In any educational system, they must occupy an important place. Yet the way and the form in which they are held need reform. There are so many serious defects in the present system of examination that their purpose is completely defeated. They fail in measuring the progress of students. Many ways of reforming the examination system have been suggested. One is the Setting of objective-type questions, instead of the present system in which the questions require long, essay-type answers, In this way, it becomes possible to Cover the whole Course and the personal factor is eliminated. This method has been used so far with success in pre-medical and other competitive examinations. But its great drawback is that it does not develop the expressive power of the students, Careful thinking is necessary before objective tests are introduced in schools and Colleges.

At present, examinations have become meaningless, for there is copying on a mass Scale. Copying Is rampant even in the cities, and in the best of institutions. Students take with them into the examination hall cheap bazaar notes and copy out the answers from them. If the invigilators try to prevent the use of such unfair means, they are threatened with dire consequences. In the rural areas, conditions are much worse. There copying is organised by teachers and other interested parties, with the active cannivance of the school authorities, examination suprintendants, Principals etc. Answers are dictated in the examination halls or written out on the black-boards.

Therefore, there is urgent need for the over-hauling of the present system of examinations. Various measures of reform have been suggested from time to time. One of the suggestions is that students should be allowed to take books of their choice into the examination hall, and make free use of them. Questions should be so framed that those students alone who are well up in the subject and have studied their books would be able to find out the right answers. Moreover, as the number of questions would be pretty large, the examinees would not get much time to search out the answers in their books. This again would make previous preparation essential. In this way, the whole course would be covered up and the examinees' would be obliged to make due preparations. As books would be freely allowed, the problem of mass copying or the use of unfair means would cease to exist. It would be automatically solved.

Thus there is much to be said in favour of 'open book examinations’. However, this system should be introduced with great caution. Initially, it should be introduced on a very limited scale, and its scope may then be widened in the light of the experience thus acquired. Intelligent framing of questions in crucial for the success of this system. A number of Government departments such as the C.D.A., P.W.D, etc., have been holding such examinations for many years. The experience gained by them can be of great value and many pitfalls can be avoided if they are consulted before this innovation is introduced in schools and colleges of the country. Much depends on the integrity and efficiency of teachers who will have to implement and work out the scheme.

Wednesday, 16 October 2019

Co-education : its advantages and disadvantages / Essay on Co Education is Good or Bad ?

Co-education : its advantages and disadvantages / Essay on Co Education is Good or Bad ?

Co-education : its advantages and disadvantages / Essay on Co Education is Good or Bad ?

Co-education is that education in which boys and girls read in a common college and sit together in the same classes. Co-education was not prevalent in ancient India. It is of recent origin. It is a foreign system. In ancient India, boys and girls of young age were kept separate from each other. This was thought essential to maintain the purity of their character. That is why so many of our elders are against co-education. They point out many defects of this system of education. Some of them are given below.

When young boys and girls come closer to each other, they care more for each other than for their books. They get busy in making friends with each other. The boys chase their girl class-fellows on their cycles. Sometimes, they even deceive their parents. Under one or the other pretext, they remain away from their homes and enjoy the company of their friends of the opposite sex in the cinema hall. The precious time of study is thus lost owing to sex attraction.

Inside classrooms, the students try to attract the attention of their friends of the opposite sex. They become absent-minded. Boys keep combs in their pockets and dress up their hair off and on, even while the teacher is lecturing. All sorts of motions, gestures, and signs are made in the class. This is decidedly a sign of indiscipline. The entire atmosphere of co-educational institutions is one of indiscipline.

The evil effects of co-education on character cannot be denied. Purity of character is impossible is such an atmosphere. Such educational institutions are, more or less, fashion places. Girls and boys of such colleges try to be heroes and heroines of the cinema. The latest fashions are imitated. In fact, all sorts of undesirable habits are formed and good qualities of character are sacrificed.

In spite of all this, all is not bad with co-education. In free democratic India, girls cannot be denied education. Along with the boys, girls also must be educated. Now, to run separate schools, in spite of an inadequate number of girl students, is uneconomical. Separate institutions for girls should be established only at big places where sufficient number of girls are always forthcoming to seek admissions. Through co-education much wastage is avoided and the cause of female education also does not suffer.

Co-education is good from the social point of view also. Young boys and girls get good opportunity to understand with each other. They have to work in different walks of life in co-operation with each other. So, through co-education, a healthy spirit of working together
 is developed. Some of these young students choose their life-partners from among their class fellows. In this way, the problem of marriage for many parents is solved. Boys and girls educated together prove more successful in their family and social life. This is due to the understanding of each other’s psychology which they get during the period of their education.

Keeping in view all the good and bad points of co-education we must say that we cannot totally reject it. There is no harm in educating girls and boys together in primary classes. They can study there as brothers and sisters. Co-education is dangerous for the boys and girls of High School and Inter classes. At this age, several physical and mental changes take place. During this period, students must not be allowed to go astray. Total separation from each other is essential. Hence, co-education does not suit this age group. Again, in university classes co-education may be allowed. By this stage boys and girls become sufficiently mature. They begin to understand their good and bad. So co-education can do no harm to them.

Sunday, 6 October 2019

Long and Short Essay on A Morning Walk

Long and Short Essay on A Morning Walk

Essay on A MORNING WALK : Today, we are providing Long and short paragraph and Essay on A MORNING WALK in English for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Students can choose these essay according to their need.

    A MORNING WALK Essay For Class 1 & 2

    Below is a Paragraph or Short essay on a Morning walk written for class 1 and 2 under 100 to 150 words catagory.

    Morning time is the best time. An early riser catches the lark. One who is lazy and lethargic misses a lot in life. He is certainly not a gainer. One who gets up in the morning, he can finish hundreds of work. He can go to a nearby garden. There he can walk, exercise or jog. He can make his health. A morning walk is extremely useful and beneficial. The nature is at peace. There is no din and noise. There is no dust and dirt. A cool breeze blows. The birds chirp. The stream flows majestically. Gandhi ji advocated morning walk. One paces leisurely. One is not in a great haste. Dew-drops shine like pearls. Greenery is very useful to eyes and brain. While walking bare-footed on the green and dewy grass, one feels young and buoyant. A fresh breeze fills new life in us. The flowers give out sweet fragrance. Morning walk keeps everyone fresh and cheerful throughout the day. It is the best beginning of the day. 

    A Morning Walk Essay For Class 3 & 4

    Below is a essay on a Morning walk written for class 3 and 4 under 200 to 250 words catagory.


    Exercise is very good for health. The lightest exercise iswalk. A walk in the morning is especially useful. It is useful to persons of all age groups. It refreshes one's mind. It keeps one medically fit.


    It is another thing that all people do not get up early.Some people find it difficult to go out in winter. I, however,get up early in the morning. I have cultivated this habit since childhood. I never miss my morning walk.

    Igoto the canal bank. I take my friends with me. We have to walk three miles. The atmosphere on the way is free from dust and smoke. There is no rush, no traffic.

    Nature is at her best in the early hours. The morningbreeze is cool, fresh and fragrant. The birds sing sweet songs. Their young-ones chirp. The gentle air producessweet music by striking against the leaves. The dew dropson the green grass shine like pearls.

    Along the canal, there is a park. It is beautifully laid out.Flowers of different kinds and hues are grown there. Someof the flowers are seasonal. Others keepthroughout the year.The fresh flowers laden with dew wave their heads in themorning breeze. There is nothing but fragrance all around.

    We take some exercise in the park. Some of us walkbare-footed on the grass. People take yoga exercises.Soon the sun appears. It looks like a ball of fire. Themingling of sun rays with the beautiful objects of nature, inthe presence of cool breeze, produce a pleasant effect.

    We take our way back home. After reaching home. I take bath. I get ready for the school. I keep active and fresh throughout the day. At night, I enjoy sound sleep.

    A MORNING WALK Essay For Class 5 & 7

    Below is an essay on a Morning walk written for class 5 and 7 under 300 to 350 words catagory.


    Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. It is said 'an early bird catches a lark.' Early in the morning the atmosphere is calm and quiet. Serenity (calmness) reigns everywhere. There is no din and noise. There is no dirt and dust. There are no traffic hold-ups. The roads are lonely. The hooting of the factories is nowhere to disturb. The smokeless atmosphere is quite fit for an early morning walk.

    There are a few morning walkers who are lucky enough as to sit the nectar of the dawn. People go to nearby parks or Gardens. The birds chip there. The koel sings a happy note. It attracts every heart. Many do a lot of exercise. A few skid and jog. Many others inhale and exhale. They take along breaths to cleanse the impurity of the lungs. The beautiful flowers and plants Captivate our hearts and minds. The dew drops sparkle in the rays of the Rising Sun. Walking on them with bare feet cool the fatigued nerves. They prove soothing. They are extremely useful to Eyes. The medical science says that dewdrops are amply beneficial to the ailments of the eyes. A smiling Blossom welcomes you. You get a new lease of life

    A morning walk by the river-side is also highly useful. There the people have long walks on either bank of the river. Most of the old people stroll there for hours. They get the joy of their life. People bathe and swim in the river. Swimming is a very good exercise. It is also a part of the morning walk. some do sun-bath. It is said early rays of the sun give lustre to the body. They strengthen the sinews (muscles). They turn your body structure into a rod of Steel. 


    An Early Riser finishes his morning work at once. He is at a great advantage. He remains smart and alert the whole day. He never falls ill. It is all due to regular morning walks. Its uses are too many but only a few lucky reap this Golden harvest.

    A MORNING WALK Essay For Class 7, 8 & 9

    Below is a Long essay on a Morning walk written for class 7, 8 and 9 under 350 to 400 words catagory with Headings.

    Introduction : There are no two opinions about the fact that a morning walk is a boon for health. No diet or tonic is as effective as the morning walk. One has to pay nothing for it.

    Morning scene : I take a walk every morning with my friend Raju. Raiu is my class-mate and next door neighbour. We walk along the road. This lonely road leads out of the town.

    Yesterday we started at 5 a.m. As we went out a cool morning breeze welcomed us. We passed through some fields of wheat.The spreading fields presented a beautiful scene. The chirping of the birds created a lively sensation in our hearts.

    Some farmers were ploughing their fields at a distance. We passed through a small village where we saw village young women going to draw water. They were singing sweet folk songs. We enjoyed these songs very much. We felt some thrill which Wordsworth must have felt on hearing the song of the Solitary Reaper.

    Scene in the sun light : The golden ball of sun appeared in the East. The horizon was shining with a golden light. With folded hands we stood for a few minutes to pay our respect to the Sun-God. Bright rays or light made the scenery more attractive andpleasing.

    Along the bank of a steam : We walked and walked till we reached the stream. It flows near our town. We sat on its bank and took rest for some time. We saw a garden nearby. We walked into it.

    In the garden : There were grassy plots. We walked bare-footed on this grass. We enjoyed the fragrance of the beautiful flowers growing on a large number of plants.

    The return : Asit was about seven in the morning, we walkedback towards our homes. We had covered a distance of kilometers from our homes. Now we hastened back and reach home at 8. a.m.

    Its effect on me : When I returned home from my walk I found the nature changed. All the sights and sounds had a wonderful effect on my body and mind. My mind became fresh and active. The fatigue which was caused by learning my lessons seemed to be gone. I felt that I had energy enough to do my work with ease.

    Conclusion : A walk in the morning keeps us healthy and strong. It gives a good start to our day.

    Monday, 30 September 2019

    AUTONOMY FOR TV. AND RADIO ITS FEASIBILITY

    AUTONOMY FOR TV. AND RADIO ITS FEASIBILITY

    AUTONOMY FOR TV. AND RADIO ITS FEASIBILITY


    For a long time the Indian opposition parties have been loudly demanding an Autonomous Broadcasting Corporation and charging the Government with the misuse of these powerful media of mass communication. It was forgotten that the ruling party has to convey its achievements, plans, and objectives, to the masses and also undo the campaign of misinformation and distortion that is unleashed by position from time to time.


    The various parties that constituted the National Front government made the autonomy of T.V. and Radio an important item in their election menifestoes for the election to the IX Lok Sabha held in November-December  1989. The ruling Congress government was criticized for misusing these powerful media and it was said, that if elected to power, thay will soon end this misuse and establish an autonomous corporation to put an end to such misuse.

    So soon after coming of the V.P. Singh Government into power, The Prasar Bharti Bill was drafted and tabled in the Lok Sabha in December.1989, so that it may be taken up for discussion and approval in the monsoon session. Let us first examine its provisions in detail and then see if they really make T.V. and Radio autonomous.


    It is proposed through the Bill to set up a single autonomous corporation (to be known as the Prasar Bharti Broadcasting Corporation of India) with two distinct wings- television and radio-to ensure its working in fair, objective creative manner. According to the Bill, the corporation will have a 10 member Board of Governors with four full time members and also, an 11 member broadcasting council. The council will monitor the working of the corporation and hear complaints.


    Under the bill, the Government will have the right to make rules for the corporation and remove or suspend the Governors after reference to the Supreme Court. The annual accounts of the corporation will be certified by the Controller and Auditor General and presented to the Central Government for laying them before the Parliament. It was presumed that the proposed corporation would function as a genuinely autonomous body, innovative, dynamic and flexible, with a high degree of credibility. However, one difficulty was conveniently forgotten or ignored. It was forgotten that T.V. and the Radio have a combined income of nearly 200 crores while the expenditure on the proposed corporation would run to over Rs. 280 crores. As the subsidy 'or financial aid would be supplied by the Govt., its hold over the media would continue. It will not be autonomous in the real sense.


    The proposed structure of the corporation takes into account the need for ensuring that radio and television, which belong to two distinct ways of communication, are enabled to evolve and grow in their own way while ensuring co-operation of overall approach which alone can ensure that the requirements of the people regarding entertainment, information and education are met, that the programmes are useful for all.


    The Board of Governors will consist of a Chairman, an executive Governor, two Governors in-charge of finance and personnel, and six part-time governors. The Board will also have a representative of the Information and Broadcasting ministry. One of the important provisions has already been modified the Chairman of the corporation will only be a part-time officer so that there may be no conflict between the Chairman and the other Governors.


    The Chairman and other Governors will be appointed by the President on the recommendation of a committe comprising of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, the Chairman of the Press Council, and a nominee of the President of India, The Chairman and the Governors shall be persons of eminence from public life. The Governors will be people with considerable experience in various fields assigned to them. This provision has come in for a good deal of criticism as an insult to the personnel working on the staff of the media. It has been said that it is a slur on their experience and efficiency, and protests have been made against it.

    The Executive Governor will be the Chief Executive of the corporation. The Broadcasting Council will receive and consider complaints, and advise the corporation in the discharge of its functions, It will also receive complaints from any person claiming to have been treated unjustly or unfairly including unwarranted invasion of privacy, misinterpretation, distortion, lack of objective. The Elected Government may issue to the corporation directions it considers necessary in the interest of the security of the state or preservation of public order.



    The staff of the AlR and the T.V. is unhappy about the Bill. Too much of bureaucratic control over the media is feared. A number of provisions of the Bill go against the very concept of autonomy. No doubt P. Upendra, the former Union Information and Broadcasting Minister, did go to the UK. and the U.S.A. to study there the functioning of their Broadcasting corporations. But then the question has been repeatedly asked if the Government did not have full knowledge of the working of these bodies, and if not, why did it make its election promises regarding this issue, without making a full depth study of the whole problem. The Minister might have returned from his foreign tours wiser and with more knowledge but will the newly gained wisdom and knowledge help him much when he is back in his chair in Shastri Bhavan to deal with the autonomy question again?


    However, one fears that it is not lack of knowledge on the part of the Government that deters it from going ahead with its plan of giving autonomy to Doordarshan and All India Radio. The real problem is that no Government wants to relinquish control over such powerful media. If the Congress blatantly misused the electronic media, the National Front Government also wanted to retain its control over them. This explains why the Prasar Bharati Bill has turned out to be a joke.


    The proposed amendments to the bill go against the very concept of autonomy which the National F u and other Opposition parties had promised during the general elections. In the bill, a board of governors, consisting of persons of eminence, integrity and independence is envisaged to ensure the autonomy of the electronic media but there is also a proposal to add a sub-clause which will empower Government to suspend or dissolve the board in the interest of "national security". Another proposal is to entrust the Government with powers to suspend the entire Act in emergency-like situations. Evidently, the N.F. Government developed cold feet on the autonomy question with the result that it wanted to settle for a diluted autonomy for the electronic media. After an initial hands off phase, the National Front Government could not resist the temptation of making use of radio and T.V. for propaganda.


    The problem is a complicated one and no simplistic solution is possible. The more one thinks over the matter the more is one convinced that it is all a political affair, and not a desire for real autonomy. We may add that the Chandar Shekhar Government which succeeded the V.P. Singh Government has not been able upto date to give thought to this problem. It has been pre-occupied with other more pressing problems.
    What is Hawala? And its Impacts OR Political Corruption

    What is Hawala? And its Impacts OR Political Corruption

    What is Hawala? And its Impacts OR Political Corruption


    Corruption in one form or another has always existed, Kautilya, in his Arthashastra, writes, "Just as it is impossible not to taste the honey or the poison that finds itself at the tip of the tongue, so it is impossible for a government servant not to eat up a bit of the kings revenue.” But never before had the ruling government of any country been involved in such wide spread bribery. Never before the rulers have sold their country in this fashion. No scandal has ever created such pandemonium sweeping across the entire political establishment as the Jain hawala pay offs have done.


    A world wide study ranked India as the third most corrupt country in the world. Even then there was no sense of shame among the political wide of the country because taking money seemed almost right to them. Moreover, there was some relief that there were two other countries ahead to them. Yet, when the hawala allegations started showing up, it seemed that no other country could be as corrupt as ours.


    What is Hawala? Hawala consists of illegal foreign exchange deals. Through this trade, bribes received abroad can be brought into the country, bypassing official channels. Also bribes received within the country can be converted into dollars and slashed away in secret bank accounts abroad Huge profits are made, since the foreign exchange is converted at black market rates. The process is quite simple. If a multinational company wants to acquire a contract in India, it pays dollars to a hawals agent abroad. His counterpart makes rupee payments to bureaucrats in India in rupees, converting the money at black market rates. Foreign powers who want to destabilize the country too make payments abroad and the hawala agent makes rupee payments to terrorists within the country. So it can be said that if hawala had been controlled there would have been no rise in militancy in India, the Bombay blasts may never have happened.


    In the country bureaucrats and politicians also use the hawala channel for sending their load of money abroad. The agent is paid rupees in India and his counterpart convert and deposit the money in secret accounts in a foreign country.



    India and Indians have lived with corruption for years. For the time being it can be said that the political history of corruption starts with independence and ends with the hawala racket. But for once the people of lndia hope that the culprits though high statured will be punished. However, the hawala case can find its place in history only if it is a turning point and is used as a right opportunity to reform the corrupt political system of our country.

    Thursday, 26 September 2019

    ESSAY ON WHEN LIBERTY BECOMES LICENCE, DICTATORSHIP IS NEAR

    ESSAY ON WHEN LIBERTY BECOMES LICENCE, DICTATORSHIP IS NEAR

    "WHEN LIBERTY BECOMES LICENCE, DICTATORSHIP IS NEAR" is a quotation which tells us the misuse of liberty in democracy. In this Essay, We will learn that how the Excessive liberty for one class of society deprivates of liberty for other classes because liberty may be endangered by the abuse of liberty.

    ESSAY ON WHEN LIBERTY BECOMES LICENCE, DICTATORSHIP IS NEAR

    The quotation warns us against the misuse of democratic freedom. Freedom must not be allowed to degenerate into licence, for such degeneration ultimately leads to the loss of all freedom and the establishment of Dictatorship. In the pre-emergency days there was a spurt of violent agitations, strikes and lock-outs. Late Shri Jai Prakash Narain even called upon the police and the armed forces to revolt. Liberty completely degenerated into Licence, with the result that late Indira Gandhi was compelled to impose emergency. Democracy was thus derailed and replaced by near dictatorship. Hence the writer warns us not to misuse our freedom in our own interest.

    Excessive liberty for one class of society means deprivation of liberty for other classes. This leads to conflict, and dictatorship is often the results. The French Revolution occurred because the aristocracy enjoyed uncurtailed liberty, which imposed untoled hardships on other classes. Besides, liberty is essentially a product of rules; excessive liberty on the other hand implies an abandonment of rules. This leads to chaos, and chaos leads almost inevitably to dictatorship or totalitarian form of government.

    Almost all the revolutions the world has seen have been preceded by periods of utter licence and abandonment. However, when excessive liberty is one sphere of activity is compensated for by restraint and sobriety in others, it may not lead to dictatorship. During the Italian Renaissance, there was complete liberty in the art and sciences, but not in the economic or religious sphere. Consequently, there was neither hardship for any class, nor dictatorship.

    Emergence of dictatorship in a number of countries of the world is the direct result of the misuse of liberty. Till recently, there was dictatorship in Pakistan for this very reason and military coups are the order of the day in most African countries. All this shows that the people must understand the meaning of liberty and the limits within which it can be enjoyed. Under no circumstances should they take the law in their own hands. If they do so, they may be sure that dictatorship is at hand.