Wednesday, 28 August 2019

Long and Short Essay on Indira Gandhi

Long and Short Essay on Indira Gandhi

Essay on Indira Gandhi : Today, we are providing Long and short paragraph and Essay on Indira Gandhi in English for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12. Students can choose these essay according to their need.

    These easy and simple Essays on Indira Gandhi will give you information about INDIRA GANDHI'S LIFE, ACHIEVEMENTS AND HER FAILURES. 

    Short Essay on Indira Gandhi in 100 words

    Indira Gandhi was the first lady Prime Minister of India. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen years and during her Prime Minister ship, she achieved wide popularity. she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. She studied at the University of Oxford. Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984. The entire world mourned her death. The people of India still love and respect this Iron-lady.

    Essay on Indira Gandhi in 300 words

    Former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad, in the British India She died on October 31, 1984 in New Delhi,
    Long and short paragraph and Essay on Indira Gandhi
    India Indira Gandhi - no relation to Mahatma Gandhi - was the first female Prime Minister of India. She served as Prime Minister for four terms in all She served for three consecutive terms between the years 1966 and 1977. She was re-elected to a fourth term in 1980, and she served until her assasination in 1984.

    Indira was the granddaughter of Indian independence leader Motilal Nehru and daughter of the first Prime Minister of independent India. Jawaharlal Nehru She was brought up in a very political environment, and she became a good politician.

    Indira Gandhi was educated both in India and in Britain. When she returned to India from Oxdord in 1941, she began to work for the movement for Indian independence. She worked as an assistant for her father in the 1950s when he was Prime Minister. Her father died in 1964, When Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister for that year. Indira Gandhi was appointed Minister of Information and Broadcasting.

    Shastri died suddenly and Indira Gandhi Became Prime Minister. Her political upbringing served her well. She showed that she was a skilled politician, good at winning elections and achieving her goal. She pursued social economic policies aimed at helping the people, and worked to make the agricultural system more other and productive.

    She was voted out of office in 1977, but her party won the elections in 1980 and she became Prime Minister again.

    The Golden Temple is the most sacred shine for the Sich religion. In 1984 armed men occupied It. In June of that year, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to storm the Golden Temple to remove them. This offended the Sikhs, and motivated two of Gandhi's bodyguards to assassinate her on October 31, 1984. The New Delhi international airport is named the Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honor

    Essay on Indira Gandhi in 400 words with Conclusion

    Introduction : Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the beloved leader of the people of India. To see her was to love her. After her downfall in 1977, the people had again placed the country in her hands in 1980.

    Indira's Birth, Education and her Marriage : She was born on Nov. 19, 1917. She was brought up in a family full of political activities and love of country. So the family atmosphere had agreat influence on her mind. She got her education at Allahabad,Oxford and Shanti Niketan. In 1942, she was married to Mr. Feroze Gandhi, a Parsi Youth. He died in 1960, she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay.

    A Born Politician : Indira Gandhi was the worthy daughter of a worthy father. She was a born politician. After the death of her mother she had a very difficult time. In her early life she jumped into politics.

    Indira's Political Career : She had been the member of Indian National Congress. In 1959, she was elected President of National Congress. It was only after the death of her father that she became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. After the untimely death of Sh. Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, she was elected Prime Minister of India.

    Indira's work as the Prime Minister : She held the great office for about 17 years. During the period of her reign she led the country to a place of honour. It was under her leadership in 1971,that India defeated Pakistan and broke its back for ever. She nationalized all the major banks and abolished privy purses. Thesewere her two bold steps.

    In 1975 the opposition parties revolted after the historical judgement of Justice Sinha. To put all opposition down she declared a state of Internal Emergency. This brought her defeat in the general election of 1977.She was in hot water for a period of two and a half years. In the mid-term poll, held in January 1980 she won back her lost position.

    Indira's work after 1980 : Now she had to face many challenges.The demand of ‘Khalistan’ made her restless. The whole of the Punjab came in the grip of terrorism. These two things turned the Golden Temple into a fortress. The Akalis presented a great challenge to her. As a custodian of the country's unity she had to order the army to enter into Golden Temple. It freed the temple complex of terrorists.

    Indira Gandhi's Death : On the black Wednesday morning of 31st October, 1984 a 9.18 A.M. she was shot dead at her residence by two of her own security guards named Beant Singh and Satwant Singh. She died after few hours.

    Conclusion : The Nation mourned her death. In her deaththe Nation lost a worthy maker of India.

    Long Essay on Indira Gandhi in 1000 words

    Indira Gandhi, one of the best-known women of the 20th century, was Prime Minister of India, and daughter of former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Also known as Indira Nehru Gandhi, she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. She was born in a family that was at the centre of Indian freedom movement. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru and grandfather Motilal Nehru were at the forefront of Indian freedom struggle. Her mother Kamla Nehru, although less involved politically, was subject to political arrest by the British Indira Gandhi had a lonely childhood, with some of her most vivid remembrances being the entry into her home of British policemen. As her parents did not want to send her to any of the British schools in India, Indira Gandhi's education took place at a series of Indian schools and at non-British schools in Europe, with a number of private tutorials interspersed between periods at school.

    Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. The marriage was opposed by orthodox Hindus because it was an inter-communal love marriage not arranged by her parents. Jawaharlal Nehru too opposed the marriage on grounds that the couple were somewhat incompatible because both possessed fiery tempers. Publicly, however, both Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi strenuously defended the marriage. Shortly after their marriage both Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi were arrested and jailed for nationalist activities. Indira Gandhi was released after eight months and Feroze Gandhi after an year. After the release Feroze Gandhi became editor of The National Herald, a newspaper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the principal confidant and assistant of her father during the period of Nehru's prime ministership (1947-1965). The couple separated for a number of years during the 1950s as Feroze Gandhi launched his own political career in Parliament and was often at odds with Jawaharlal Nehru's policies and style. In 1959 Indira Gandhi became President of the Indian National Congress and in 1964 she was elected to the parliament Meanwhile, the death of Feroze Gandhi (from a heart attack) in 1960, and the subsequent death of her father in 1964, caused Indira Gandhi to withdraw into a shell and limit herself to her immediate family.

    After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister and Indira Gandhi was the minister of Information and Broadcasting in his government. After Lal Bahadur Shastri's untimely death in 1966, she was selected as prime minister by party bosses within the Congress Party as a compromise candidate. Her candidature was opposed by Morarji Desai, a veteran nationalist and prime ministerial aspirant himself. The Congress bosses were apparently looking for a leading figure acceptable to the masses, who could not only command general support during the next general election but who would also acquiesce to their guidance. In her initial days as Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi encountered numerous problems such as Mizo tribal uprisings in the northeast; famine, labour unrest and misery among the poor in the wake of rupee devaluation, and agitation in Punjab for linguistic and religious separatism.

    In the fourth general elections held in 1967, Congress suffered a major setback. Congress majority was greatly reduced in parliament and non-Congress ministries were established in Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Madras, Punjab, and West Bengal. This forced Mrs. Indira Gandhi to become assertive and opt for a series of choices that pitted her directly against the Congress Party high command, which had previously been built up by her father. Seeking to eradicate poverty, Mrs. Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 of land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property, and corporate profits. She also nationalized the major banks, a bold step amidst a growing rift between herself and the party elders. The Congress expelled her for "indiscipline" on November 12, 1969, an action that split the party into two factions: the Congress (O)-for Organisation-led by Morarji Desai, and the Congress (1)--for Indira-led by Indira Gandhi.

    Indira Gandhi campaigned fiercely on the slogan of "Garibi Hatao* (eliminate poverty) during the fifth general elections in March 1971 and won an unprecedented two-third majority. Her leadership qualities came to the fore during India-Pakistan war in 1971 that resulted in liberation of Bangladesh, India achieved decisive victory over Pakistan in the face of diplomatic opposition from both China and the United States and a lack of international support from almost every other nation except the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. Indian victory over Pakistan led to a great surge in Indira Gandhi's popularity and she was compared to Goddess Durga by ordinary Indians.

    Expectations raised by the garibi hatao campaign and India's victory over Pakistan in 1971 led to great disappointment and political difficulties in the mid-1970s. Enormous economic cost of 1971 war, increase in world oil prices and drop in industrial output added to the economic hardships. During this time J.P.Narayan initiated a civil disobedience movement against Indira Gandhi. In June 1975, amidst all this crises Allahabad High Court invalidated her 1971 election on the grounds of electoral malpractices. Instead of resigning  Indira Gandhi declared an Emergency in the country and jailed al her political opponents. The Emergency lasted till March 1977 and in the general election held afterwards she was defeated by a coalition of parties called Janta Morcha.

    Factionalism among coalition partners led to the collapse of Janta government and Indira Gandhi came back to the power once again in 1980. But her second innings was beset with difficulties and personal tragedies. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. Her government was confronted with serious challenges to its ability to maintain law and order as conflicts between religious and ethnic groups broke out in different parts of the country. After the army had invaded the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the chief shrine of the Sikhs, which had been held as an armed camp by a group of militant Sikhs, she became the target for Sikh anger and on 31 October 1984 she was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguard.

    Achievements: Became President of Indian National Congress in 1959; was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in Lal Bahadur Shastri's government; became Prime Minister in 1966; nationalized major banks in 1969; gave the slogan of Garibi Hatao during 1971 general elections: led India to a decisive war against Pakistan in 1971.


    Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi was sworn-in as the Prime Minister of India on 26th January, 1964, after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen years and during her Prime Ministership she achieved wide popularity. From the very beginning of her coming to this important office, she had to face a large number of difficulties - internal as well as external-and it is creditable that after facing each new difficulty she, as well as the nation, emerged with greater confidence and sense of strength. She took various, revolutionary steps for the well-being and prosperity of the Indian people.

    First of all she had to evercome the strains imposed on the Indian economy by the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. Next, drought and floods devasted large parts of the country. Then in 1971, there was another war with Pakistan and an influx of about ten million refugees from Bangladesh. In the war, Pakistan armies were routed and over a lakh of her troops surrendered unconditionally. The result was the birth of a new and friendly nation Bangladesh. The refugees were all sent back. It was during this time of crisis that she signed the historic treaty of peace and friendship with the Soveit Union. In this way she secured a powerful friend for India.

    No sooner had Mrs. Gandhi and the people succeeded in solving these problems, than there was an international oil crisis which caused an increase in the prices of patroleum, fertilizers, chemicals, food and other commodities, which India had to import in large quantities. This further increased the inflationary pressure on the India economy. Prices soared and the purchasing power of the rupee declined in both domestic and foreign markets. It goes to the credit of Mrs. Gandhi that despite such over- whelming difficulties, she was able to check inflation and bring down prices.

    In order to acquire full control over the economy, late Mrs. Indira Gandhi nationalised fourteen major banks. By this step the banks were enabled to divert loans to the weaker sections of society. This was followed by the take over of the general insurance companies and coal mines. After this, various foreign oil refineries were taken over. She also abolished the privy purses and other privileges of the Indian princes. After 25 years of independence, it was reasonable to end the special rights of the former rulers. The Government had to pay several crores of rupees every year to these Rajas and Maharajas and the Indian people had to bear this burden. It was a bold step in the direction of socialism.

    Special attention was paid to, the development of Science and technology. Two major achievements of the period are an underground nuclear explosion for peaceful purposes, and the launching of satellites into space. By these achievements, the prestige of the nation was increased manifold in the word. Now, not only does India have a large number of efficient scientists, technicians and doctors for herself, but is also sending technical personnel in large numbers to the underdeveloped countries of the world.

    Under her able leadership, India marched towards self-reliance very rapidly. It started drilling oil from Bombay High and it is estimated that soon India will have enough oil for its needs. Thus, a large amount of foreign exchange wasted on the import of oil will be saved. On the agriculture side also, India has become self-reliant. Food production has been doubled, and the birth rate has been brought down through intensive family planning drives.

    A vigorous campaign against anti-social elements like smugglers and tax-evaders, was launched. As a result of the arrest and detention of hundreds of smugglers, drain on India's foreign exchange resources was considerably reduced. Hundreds of hoarders and black-marketeers were arrested and this led to a fall in the prices of essential commodities

    Unfortunately, the opposition parties launched agitations against the elected government and also against Mrs. Gandhi personally. They tried to remove the government by force. There were violent agitations in Bihar and Gujrat and Bundhs' and Gherao's all over the country. Near chaotic conditions prevailed, and for sometime it seemed there was no government in the country. Taking into account the subversive role of the opposition parties, she considered it necessary to declare a state of emergency arising from threats of inter disturbance. Opposition leaders were arrested, and communal parties like the R.S.S. and Anand Marg were banned.

    During the nineteen months of emergency there was marked improvement in every walk of life. In government offices efficiency returned after a long time. A large number of corrupt and inefficient officers w were suspended or retired. There were no strikes and lock outs in industries. Schools and colleges once again functioned peacefully. The use of unfair means was checked and examinations were held on schedule. Sense of discipline was infused into national life. Peace, stability, law and order, were once again restored in a country which seemed to be on the brink of chaos and disintegration.

    However, by the declaration of emergency Mrs. Gandhi caused great hardships to the people. There were excesses of all sorts. The result was the rout of the Congress and the coming of the Janta Party to power. There were many other ways of dealing with the chaotic conditions which prevailed before the emergency. But the Janta party could not rule for any length of time. Mrs. Gandhi was back again, more powerful than ever before.

    During the last three years of her career she attended a number of international conferences and emerged as a leader of international status. The successful holding of the Asiad games, despite position, was a sign achievement. Under her dynamic leadership Indian economy began to look up. The country was safe in her hands. The Punjab problem was the most difficult problem that she had to face in her career. The Operation Blue Star made the hard-core among the sikhs hostile to her. Her name stood at the top of their hit list. The result was she was assassinated on 31st October, 1984, and the entire world mourned her death.

    Thus ended a brilliant career full of remarkable achievements.

    Tuesday, 27 August 2019

    Long and Short Essay on A Journey By Bus

    Long and Short Essay on A Journey By Bus

    Essay on A Journey By Bus : Today, we are providing Long and short paragraph and various essay on a journey by bus for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12. Students can choose these essay according to their need.

      These easy and simple Bus Journey Essay will give you hands on experience of a Bus journey and its advantages. These essays are good source of knowledge and will help you in your school assignments or essay writing/debate competitions etc

      Short Essay on A Journey By Bus 100 Words

      A journey by bus is among the most enjoyable journeys. Yesterday I went to my hometown by bus. It was a pleasant trip. I was traveling for my own enjoyment. I woke up early, and went to the bus station at 9.30. The bus was late.
      Essay on A Journey By Bus
      It arrived about 10.00, and we left. We traveled through the beautiful countryside. The sun was shining brightly at first. After a while, dark clouds appeared in the sky. By the time we arrived at by hometown, it was raining heavily. I had gone out without a raincoat or an umbrella Fortunately, an old friend of mine was waiting at the Bus Station. The day had passed pleasantly and eventually. This was indeed a great experience. I will remember this Bus journey all my life. 

      Essay on A Journey By Bus 200 Words

      My house is situated near the Bus Stand in Ludhiana. So,I prefer traveling by bus. Last Saturday. I had a novel experience when I went to Batala.

      There was a great rush at the bus stand. The queue at the Batala booking window was unending. I could get a ticket after a long wait. I rushed to the bus. I could hardly get a seat. Within a few minutes, the bus was over crowded. Many passengers boarded the bus even without tickets. Those standing,caused great inconvenience.

      I feel suffocation in a crowd. Luckily, most of the windowpanes were broken. My sufferings were not over. The bus was quite dirty, untidy and jolting. Moreover, it began to rain.The passengers sitting near the windows were drenched.After sometime, the roof also began to leak.

      By the time we reached Jalandhar, the rain stopped. The bus halted there for about ten minutes at the stand. Some of the passengers got down while some new boarded. However, the rush had subsided.

      The Grand Trunk Road near Dhilwan was broken. Our bus took a kacha route. It could cover a distance of about one mile in half an hour. There was a great traffic on both sides. Bus moved a while and stopped. There was almost a traffic-jam.

      It was with great difficulty that we were able to reach our destination. I got late. But I thanked God that I had after all reached Batala.

      Essay on A Journey By Bus 300 Words

      A journey by bus is full of joys, if the distance is short. Long journey should be reserved for trains. It is always safe and comfortable to get your ticket confirmed at the booking counter. It ensures your seat. It saves you from a lot of trouble and botheration. Sometimes the bus is overcrowded and the passengers who are without tickets are thrown out midway. They become rolling stones. They face difficulty. 

      The other day i took a journey upto Panipat. I boarded the Haryana roadways bus. I got a ticket. The bus moved out of I.S.B.T. (Inter State Bus Terminal) Kashmiri Gate. Soon it was on gt road. It crossed the small stops and reached Murthal. Then it took a stop for 10 minutes. People got down. They took tea and coffee to warm themselves. Now it was broad daylight. The sun was shining brightly; the smoke and mist had disappeared. The green fields and trees were lined on either sides of the road. 

      The farmers were ploughing their fields. The birds were sitting in the branches of the trees. They were twittering(chirruping) and singing welcome notes. On the way a ticket checker entered the bus. He checked the tickets of all the passengers. He found none travelling without ticket. He alighted at a side-way stop. Then the bus picked up speed. It began to talk with air. It was an ordinary bus but it was a brand new one. The seats were very cozy. All the passengers were in their seats. Nobody was standing. The driver was highly alert and careful. He drove the bus smoothly. He did not cause inconvenience to his fellow passengers. The conductor was gentle and polite. There was a smile on his lips. He knew what is meant by “service with a smile”. 
      Soon the bus was at Gohana Turn. I got down. I had enjoyed this short spell of journey. My bus journey was easy and trouble-free.

      Essay on A Journey By Bus 400 Words

      Introduction: It was a fine day. I decided to spend the evening at Connaught Place. I got ten rupees from my father. I left my house at 6 p.m. to catch the bus for Odeon.

      An incident inside the bus: I stood in queue and waited anxiously for my turn in vain. I joined those who were struggling on the door of the bus. With a great difficulty I also got my chance to get into the bus. I got a seat. Hardly had I sat on my seat when I saw a very old man. He was standing near me. He looked very sad. I looked at him. I got up out of respect. I offered my seat to him. But to my great surprise, a fashionable young lady rushed towards the seat. She pressed herself into the seat. The poor old man looked at her helplessly. He had to keep standing. The lady felt no shame. She kept on looking at the poor old man shamelessly. I felt very angry at her behavior.

      Passengers in the bus :  The passengers inside the bus were talking loudly. Some were talking about politics. Some were talking of soaring prices. Others were discussing their personal problems.The family quarrels were the subjects of their talk. I was looking outside thinking about the sad incident.

      Scene at the next bus stop : The journey was not long. It was quite short. By now our bus reached Pant Hospital. Here many people got down. Many others boarded the bus. As usual the bus moved on. An old lady began to feel giddy. She requested a young man to provide her his seat. The proud young man refused flatly. This was very bad. We should show respect to ladies.Young ladies also should offer their seats to old and sick persons.

      Conductor's dishonesty : At the Ajmeri gate three passengers got down. They paid the fare. The conductor did not issue tickets to them. I got a chance. I said to the conductor, "Mr.conductor, you did not issue tickets to the passengers. You are dishonest." With these words I pulled the chain. The bus stopped.I asked the conductor to tear the three tickets. The conductor was perplexed. Some other passengers called him a thief. I rebuked him. The dishonest conductor felt ashamed for his dishonest act.He tore three tickets and threw them out. Again the bus started.

      The destination : The bus was now running in New Delhi. My destination was quite near. At Minto Road the driver applied the brakes suddenly. He saved a cyclist. All the passengers got a jolt. My head struck against a lady's. She cursed me. I kept silent. I got down at Odeon.

      Friday, 16 August 2019



      Today, We are Publishing Long and Short Essays on Red fort in English for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12. Students can use these essays to complete their homework as well as in competitions.


      Red Fort is one of the most popular Monuments of India. In this article, we provide you many essays on Red Fort. Students can select any Red Fort essay according to their need:

        Red Fort Essay in 200 words

        The Red Fort derives its name from the extensive use of red sandstone on the massive walls that surround the fort. Shah Jahan commissioned the construction of the Red Fort in 1638 when he decided to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Ustad Ahmad was chosen as the architect for construction of the royal palace. Construction began in the auspicious month of Muharram on 13 May 1638. Construction of the fort was supervised by Shah Jahan himself and was completed in 1648. The Red Fort was originally referred to as "Qila-i-Mubarak" (the blessed fort), because it was the residence of the royal family. Unlike the other Mughal forts, layout of the boundary walls of the Red Fort is not symmetrical so as to retain and integrate the older Salimgarh Fort. The fortress palace was an important focal point of the medieval city of Shahjahanabad (present day Old Delhi). The planning and aesthetics of the Red Fort represent the zenith of Mughal creativity which prevailed during the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's successor, added the Moti Masjid to the emperor's private quarters and constructed barbicans in front of the two main gates, which made the entrance route to the palace more circuitous.

        Red Fort Essay in 300 words 

        The History Club of our school decided to pay a visit tothe Red Fort. We went to Delhi in the summer vacation. We alighted the train at Old Delhi Railway Station. We hired tongas and reached the Red Fort. Entry to the Fort was bytickets. So, we bought one for each and entered the Fort.

        Just inside the gate, there is Nagar Khana. The imperial band played six times a day there. There were a few hugedrums. Ahead, there was Diwan-i-Aam Literally it means place for the common man. It was here that the emperor used to hold his Darbar. It was from this place that he used to carry public business. He even received officers there. In short, it was the main centre for conducting government business.

        After that is situated Diwan-i-khas. Literally, it means place for the select few persons. It was, therefore, meant purely for private audience. Only the ministers could go Nadir Shah. Even the Kohinoor was there. It is now in the crown of England.

        Beyond there is the Rang Mahal. Literally.It means the building meant for enjoyment and recreation. In this building,there are beautiful baths known as Hamams. They were meant for royal bath. A part of this building is known as Zenana. It is because the ladies of the palace lived there.

        The Moti Masjid was reserved for the king to say his prayers. The museum was no less fascinating. Many kinds of Mughal dresses and weapons are at display there. It attracted a big crowd. Every person seemed to be very anxious to see everything closely.

        There were all over lovely designs of paintings on the walls and the ceilings. The marble lotus was a great source of attraction. We came back after we were physically tired.

        The memory of the visit still lingers in my mind.I wonder how great Shah Jahan was. He appears to be very fond of getting unique buildings built. The Red Fort bears good evidence to it.

        Red Fort Essay in 400 words 

        The Red Fort is one of the great historical buildings of India. It was built by Emperor Shahjahan - the builder of the Taj Mahal. It is situated in old Deihi and is popularly called Lal Qila. It is a grand and imposing building. Within its walls lakhs of people can find place.

        The Red Fort reminds us of the glories of the Mughal period. It is built of red stone blocks. Every year on the 15th of August the Prime Minister of India addresses vast crowds in celebration of the Independence Day from the ramparts of the Red Fort. The Fort is visited frequently by sightseers throughout the year. The two main places of interest are the Diwan-e-Khas and the Diwan-e-Aam. In the former,the Mughal emperors held their Court or Darbar at which the nobility used to be present and important decisions were taken. In the latter,the King gave audience to the common people.

        When we try to recall the scenes associated with the Red Fort,our imagination is excited. The Red Fort saw for more than one hundred years the rising and falling fortunes of the Mughal dynasty. It recalls to our mind the pomp and show and the gorgeous display of Mughal power and of the very high degree of medieval India's civilization. It has been said about the Mughals that in their architecture they planned and built like giants and finished like jewellers. The Red Fort is a grand example of Mughal architecture. It staggers the imagination.Figures of Shahjahan, his queen, his princes and his two daughters, the figures of Aurangzeb and his royal family, the figures of the princes of Rajasthan, Maratha chiefs, pass before our eyes as we recall the scenes of more than two hundred years ago within the Red Fort. We also visualise in imagination the peacock throne, the Kohinoor, the invasion of Nadirshah and Adilshah, the decline of the Mughal empire,the attack of the Rohillas, the Sikhs and the Marathas on the Mughal power. And lastly we see with our mind's eye the last scene of the last act of the drama when Bahadur Shah Zafar fought a losing battle with the rising power of the East India Company. The great poet Galib recited some of his immortal poems within the walls of the Red Fort.The art and talent of India in the medieval times are represented by the Red Fort. The trial of Col.Shahnawaz and his fellow fighters in the Indian National Army of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was held in the Red Fort. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru appeared as a defence counsel.The trial of Godse the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi, was also held in the Red Fort.

        Red Fort Essay in 600 words 

        Red Fort is a very popular historical monument located in Delhi. The fort was constructed by Shah Jahan, the 5th Mughal emperor, when he wanted to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri designed the fort and it was constructed on the banks of Yamuna River whose water filed the moats of the fort. The construction of the fort was started in 1639 and completed in 1648. The fort was under the Mughals for 200 years. There are many monuments inside the fort which include mosque, palaces, halls, gates, and others. As the fort is built by using red sandstone so it is called Red Fort or Lal Qila.

        Dimensions of Red : Fort The fort is spread in an area of around 255 acres and the construction was based on Mughal architecture. The circumference of the fort is 2.41km while the walls on the river side has the height of 18m and on the city side 33m. The octagonal fort was built by using red sandstone and marbles. The buildings inside the fort like palaces, halls, mosque, and many others has floral decoration and double domes.

        Halls of  Red Fort
        Diwan-i-Aam : Diwan-i-Aam or the public audience hall was built by Shah Jahan and it was used to hear the problems of the public. His successors also used the hall for the same purpose. The front hall of the Diwan-i-Aam has entrance from three sides. The dimension of the hall is 100 feet x 60 feet. The hall is divided into 27 square bays with the help of columns that support the arches.

        The ceiling and columns of the hall is painted with gold while lime plaster is used to plaster the wall. Marble canopy can be found in the eastern wall. The canopy is covered by Bengal roof. The prime minister used to receive petition on a dais which was located below the throne. A gold plated railing separated the king from the courtiers.

        Diwan-i-Khas : Diwan-i-Khas or the private audience hall was built with white marble on which precious stones were carved. The ceiling was built using silver and now it is replaced by wood. Peacock throne was also installed here which was taken away by Nadir Shah.

        Gates Of Red Fort
        Lahori Gate : Lahori gate is named so because it faces the city of Lahore now in Pakistan. There are three storeys in the gate having arch panels of different shapes. Red sandstone is used to build the gate while the roofs of the pavilions are constructed with white stone. This is the main gate through which tourists can enter the fort. Flag is also hoisted on Independence Day and Republic Day every year.

        Delhi Gate : Delhi Gate or Dilli Darwaza is another entrance to the fort. This gate is made in the same style as the Lahori gate. It has three storeys and each storey has arch panels which are of different shapes. These shapes include square, rectangle, and cusp. Red sandstone is used to build the gate while the roof is built with white stone.

        Water Gate : Water Gate was built on the southeast walls of the fort. It is a minor gate and was built on the river bank. The river changed its course but the name of the gate remains the same.

        Red Fort under Aurungzeb : Shah Jahan was succeeded by his son Aurungzeb who added Pearl Mosque or Moti Masjid in the fort. He also built barbicans at the two main entrances of the fort. After the death of Aurungzeb, the glory of the fort began to decline.

        Red Fort after Independence : Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, hoisted the national flag at the Lahori gate of the fort in 1947. After independence, the fort was used as an army cantonment till 2003. After that it was given to Archaeological Survey of India. Today the fort is used to hoist the flags on 15th August and 26th January.

        Wednesday, 7 August 2019

        Long and Short Essay on Role of music in modern life

        Long and Short Essay on Role of music in modern life

        Role of music in modern life Essay for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Find paragraph, long and short essay on Essay on Role of music in modern life for your Kids, Children and Students.

          Long and Short Essay on Role of music in modern life

          Long and Short Essay on Role of music in modern life
          Below we have provided different essays of varied word lengths on Role of music in modern life. You can also use the information given here in school competitions – essay writing, speeches and debates.

          Role of music in modern life Essay for Class 1, 2, 3 & 4

          Music has an important role in life. It is a form of expression. It has no boundaries, and it follow no guidelines. Essentially, to me, music is like air. It has no true shape or definition, yet we need it in our life. 

          Let me tell you something, whether you realize or not every single thing around us is music. Even the nature itself is a music. The most beautiful music in the world is the music of nature. It's bring peace in heart and mind. Sound of birds chirping, rain drop and the flows of the river are an example of the music of nature.

          The more we explore about music, we realize that it is not only all about rhythm, melody or harmony. In the different angle, music is also a tool for learning, therapy and teaching because it can adjust our moods. When people are happy, sad or angry, it's very common for them to listen to the music genre that are suitable for whatever they felt at that very moment. Music can make a huge change and development, the question is how we make use of it?  

          Role of music in modern life Essay for Class 5, 6, 7, 8

          Art and music are basic human functions. Humankind and art cannot function without one another. We have the burning desire to create, whatever it may be and however tiny or grand. The interaction with sound is unavoidable, either to make it or take pleasure in it. People have always found music significant in their lives, whether for enjoyment in listening, the emotional response, performing, or creating. This is no different for classical music or contemporary concert music. Both musics have immense worth for our society; however, the problem we all know in this field is that this music is little known and hence underappreciated. As a musician and artist it is my responsibility that others can learn to enjoy the art for which I have utter passion

          It goes without saying that in mainstream American culture, classical or concert music is not a huge part of people's lives. There are still stigmas that contribute to this, as well as the practices of the government in the last two decades (declining music education in schools on the local level, resistance to increased NEA funding and less visibility of the arts on the national level: let us hope that the Obama administration can start to reverse these trends). Many people may still believe that classical music is for the rich, older, and the well-educated. Others may feel awkward about going to classical music events because they feel as if they need to act and dress a certain way in order to enter the concert or recital hall. Even more, the pretentiousness and elitism that some artists exhibit is amplified by some television shows, commercials, plays, books, by people of influence and even themselves, which distance musicians from mainstream society. While some of this is true, as with nearly any stereotype, it is not entirely true. With the impression that concert music has on society, the majority decide that it is not "for them" simply because they believe it has no relevance or worth to their lives. This is further compounded by the past government's lack of interest in promoting and supporting the arts, whether it is to fund arts organizations or arts education. Now, the current government give us hope and we have seen evidence of its commitment; but most importantly our American society needs to believe that everyone can find worth and enjoyment in classical/concert music.

          The most common way one becomes involved with music is through listening or attending a musical event. Listening at home on a CD player, or in the car, on the computer, or on an iPod can be a very personal and fulfilling experience. Music, as we know, sets a mood and a vibe as we hear it in lounges, bars, parties, or other social events. Also, attending a concert is unique as it offers the excitement of hearing live musicians while providing the sound as it is meant to be heard (if it is acoustic music that is). Where else can one sit with other people, listen, and enjoy music in (relative) silence so that there are no distractions besides the music itself?

          Music can also stimulate the mind. There are many things in music, to which one can listen and bring attention. One can be mindful of the melodies or themes, the harmony, the driving or relaxed rhythms, the color of the sounds, the activity of a piece, how the sounds are produced, or how they all relate to one another, all while, possibly figuring out how the composer conceived the piece. Focused and attentive listening is an incredible experience that allows one to be lost in a foreign sound world.

          Concert music is the music that is not only pleasing to the ears and mind but also nurturing for the soul. It has been long said that music gives one an emotional response. Characters of varying degree that are found in music, can affect one's mood. Music can raise someone's mood, get them excited, or make them calm and relaxed. Music also - and this is important - allows us to feel nearly or possibly all emotions that we experience in our lives. The possibilities are endless.

          Role of music in modern life Essay for Class 9, 10, 11, 12

          Music has always occupied a firm place in the life of every community. Travel, conquest and trade have led to the mutual enrichment of musical traditions, though on a very limited scale as compared with today. Distance is no longer an object. So the worldwide musical situation has become fluid. Roughly speaking, music has developed tonally in the West and atonally in the East; that is to say in the West an octave has eight tones with corresponding semitones; in the East the same span of sound has no such specific divisions. Yet, in recent times each system has affected the other. East and West have become more familiar with each other's music, and each other's music has become mutually popular. China, Japan and other Far Eastern countries now produce virtuoso in Western modes of performance, particularly the piano and violin. Many Eastern professionals take their place in Western orchestras.

          Indigenous music has always been connected with life experience rather than with purely aesthetic appreciation. Communities have music to reflect the moods of birth, marriage, death, war, celebration, commiseration, dance and religious ceremonial. The five basic instruments have developed in parallel; percussion, pipes, trumpets, horns and strings. Most countries are reverting to the sophisticated versions of these instruments. The danger is that thereby the traditional forms of these instruments may be lost. Many arts councils are alive to this problem.

          There is a place for music to reflect our feelings about all the main events of life. Yet, there is an equal place for purely aesthetic appreciation. Most countries offer ample opportunities; radio and television, records, tapes, CDs as well as live concerts. More and more good music is being heard by all age-groups, and, with some reservations, this can only have a good effect. Music can be both the "food of love" and a means of "soothing the savage brow".

          Nowadays schools and especially caring families seek to give children a grounding in music both as listeners and performers because this will enrich their leisure time in the future. This tuition should begin early, and before the child's life becomes over-complicated by sport and academic study. Children who are truly interested show promise by the age of six or seven.

          Inevitably, almost all young people throughout the world are confronted by the pop scene . This may have no appeal at all to their seniors but must not be condemned out of hand, because its freedom, novelty and variety reflect the instincts of independence, protest, calf-love and sympathy with the underprivileged which characterize the teenager. The pop scene began in the USA and Britain in the early 60s but unfortunately was associated with some bad things; drug-taking, sexual dancing, alcohol and sexual promiscuity. The lyrics often overtly promoted these things -- an original Beatles song "Lucy in the sky with diamonds" threw up the initials LSD. For these reasons pop music was banned by the USSR for thirty years. This was extreme, if understandable. However, pop music will always have its place with the young in the modern world.

          The main things young people should be helped to realize is that pop music is transient, of poor quality, and swiftly out of fashion. Secondly, it may be promoted by cynical individuals anxious to exploit drugs, sex and violence. "Acid house" parties are now banned in the UK. Thirdly, such music, e.g. "heavy metal", when played too loudly can injure hearing and be a nuisance to neighbors. The "ghetto-blaster" should be banned. On the positive side, pop concerts in the West have raised enormous sums for charity to benefit third-world countries.

          Increasingly, music impinges on many aspects of modern life. We are now accustomed to the nuisance of "muzak" tapes in bars, lifts (elevators), restaurants, railway stations, car radios, long distance buses, aircraft, and even the home. Some of us could well do without this intrusive noise. On the other hand some people can do work which does not require too much concentration better with a musical background. Many British wartime factory workers were helped by "Music while you work".

          Much of this music today is synthetic and computerized, but not all of it is bad. In fact, it can help to create atmosphere for say a cinema thriller or a TV feature. Music is an essential ingredient in many films, and has been ever since the piano accompanied the silent Charlie Chaplin epic.

          We still need good military music, good church music, even good background tunes for TV serials and adverts. A good tune is a useful trademark.

          Like many other features of modem life, music has its place, but it must be kept in its place.

          Monday, 5 August 2019



          Today, We have written essay on Responsibilities of a modern scientist for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12. In This essay we will discuss the following topics - (1) Introduction – The modern age – Its complexities. (2) Various problems of the present times – populations problem, atomic war, backward regions, etc. (3) Modern scientist and their duties – how to preserve world peace? (4) Scientist, role in the changing of mental outlook. (5) Duty of the state – encouragement to scientists. (6) Conclusion – how can the scientists serve mankind?


          Society is not what it was some hundred years ago. It has undergone many complex changes. Advancement of science and technology has contributed a lot to bring about this revolution. Swift means of transport and communication have brought the different parts of the world closer. Time and distance have lost their significance. The world has contracted. Thus the conditions prevailing in one part of the world have their impact on the other. The change is clearly visible in our ways of living. The agrarian Society is fast changing into an industrial one. Big industrial towns are coming into existence with their own multiple problems. In short changes have taken place in every walk of life and self-sufficient village economy has been replaced by highly complex, interdependent industrial economy.

          Today, the world at large is suffering from various acute maladies. The population has become a serious headache to the thinkers and statesmen alike, Malthus, the great economist, was the first to predict the future as completely dark due to the ever soaring population and paucity of the means of subsistence, Various disputes between the different nations can be traced to the population problem, China, our neighbour, is constantly making encroachments into Our territory. It is due to its huge population which can-not be provided with the necessities of life. Hence it is trying to occupy parts of the Indian territory.

          In fact, the world today is on the top of a steep precipice. A slightly wrong step is bound to provoke fatal. Everything will perish in the event of a nuclear war. Even the generations yet to be born will be badly affected. The future, and the rich heritage which the present generations have inherited from the past, is at stake. The scientists, more than the politicians, will be blamed, if Such a day befalls. It is the duty of the Scientists to do all they can to prevent the outbreak of the third World War.

          Yet another problem facing the governments of the World today is the problem of poverty. Some of the countries are enormously rich, while others are extremely poor. This Sight of plenty and poverty existing side by side is an eye sore to many a people. This has to be removed. Many a social economic and political ills of the World will be removed, if Scientists provide the technical know-how and wherewithal for the development of the undeveloped parts of the world. In this respect, too, scientists can be of great service to mankind.

          The gigantic problems which face the world today, make the responsibilities of modern scientists exceedingly heavy. It is only they, who can preserve world peace. They have always been imbued with an intense love for human welfare, So far their unceasing efforts have been successful in placing at the feet of the common man such comforts and luxuries as on even emperors and monarchs could not dream of. At the same time, the have placed such devastating weapons in the hands of politicians and ruler as threaten to annihilate the world itself. They have now to devote their energies to inventing means which will promote the happiness and welfare of mankind and save it from complete extinction. They must divert the use of nuclear energy to channels which would make this world a Safer and better place to live in. It is a very heavy responsibility, which has fallen on the shoulders of the modern scientists.

          Mr. Luther, an eminent thinker, has rightly said, "Neither peace, nor freedom, can be made secure in a world of nuclear giants and moral pigmies This is the crux of the problem, Scientists have to bring about a change in the mental outlook of the people. Unless people give up their narrow affiliations of caste, creed, colour, sex, etc., the world will not be free from its numerous conflicts. This can be achieved only when scientists play their part sincerely.

          To discharge such heavy responsibilities, scientists need proper environment. They must have freedom to carry on their research programmes. State encouragement in this matter should not make them their tools to achieve the ulterior motives. Scientists will be able to use their head and heart for the benefit of mankind only under healthy conditions.

          Saturday, 3 August 2019

          Write A Letter To Your Friend Importance Of Physical Exercise

          Write A Letter To Your Friend Importance Of Physical Exercise

          Write A Letter To Your Friend About Importance Of Physical Exercise

          32, Rani Rashmoni Road
          P.O. Jadavpur
          18 October, 20xx
          Letter To Your Friend About Importance Of Physical Exercise
          My dear Nitin,
          Thank you very much for your sweet letter. I am happy to learn that you have recovered from your prolonged illness. I wish you good health for all times to come. However, one thing you must keep in mind. You should attach importance to physical fitness. By physical fitness, I don’t merely mean being free from diseases. Rather you must be physically and mentally fit and be able to live a meaningful life. You can do this by following three things at the same time—balanced died, regular physical exercise and sound sleep. These are the three elementary requisites for building up a strong body and a sound mind. You are well aware of the wise saying that ‘health is the first wealth’. By ‘health’ we mean total physical and mental balance that a human being craves for and which is necessary in the present competitive world. Yoga is a complete way to attain physical and mental fitness. You can adopt it for a healthy lifestyle.

          Yours ever
          Ratan pal

          Friday, 2 August 2019

          Letter To Your Friend Telling Him About Your Ambition in Life

          Letter To Your Friend Telling Him About Your Ambition in Life

          Letter To Your Friend Telling Him About Your Ambition in Life

          7824-B, Katra Nawabda,
          R.A.R. Subzi Mandi,
          DELHI – 110007
          My Dear Surendra,
          I am in receipt of your affectionate letter. It is always a pleasure for me to hear from a dear friend like you, whom I have not met for such long time. My dear, when do you intend to return to your own loving friend?
          Letter To Your Friend Telling Him About Your Ambition in Life
          You have asked me about my dreams and ambitions. Every person has his own desires, and his own aims for the future. Some people run after wealth. They become doctors so that within only a few years they may have cars and big “kothies". Others are ambitious for position and power. They try to seek Government jobs and become I.A.S. officers. I, for one, have no such ambitions. My ambition in life is to become an engineer and serve my motherland in that capacity.

          There are various reasons for having engineering as my ambition in life. I feel that as an engineer, I would have greater opportunities of serving my motherland than in any other capacity. India has been on the road to economic development for the last forty years or more. Much has been done, but much more still remains to be done, Our economic development has not been so rapid as it should have been. It is, mainly the death of qualified engineers that has held back the progress of the country. Late Mr. Nehru was never tired of emphasising the urgent need of engineers for the country. So, I feel that I should be an engineer and do my bit for my nation.

          India lacks trained hands, and depends to a very great extent on foreigners. Moreover, whatever engineers there are, they are mostly corrupt, dishonest and insincere. They do not care to do their duty; they are more interested in feathering their own nests than in the good of their motherland. Dams, bridges, roads and houses constructed under the supervision of such engineers are worthless. They do not last; they fall or crack within no time. It is so because the material meant for these works is sold in the market and fills the pockets of these corrupt engineers. They thrive while the nation suffers. My ambition in life is to become an honest engineer and make others also honest and dutiful by my own example and influence. My ambition is to root out corruption and dishonesty from this profession, as far as it may lie within my power, It is my daily prayer that God may make me an engineer and also successful in my ambition of doing away with dishonesty and corruption. The building up of our motherland is a mighty adventure and I want to enjoy this adventure to the fullest extent.

          There are other reasons also why engineering is my ambition in life. I have never liked table work and have always preferred out-door life. No he profession provides us with so many opportunities of living in the open, in the company of the grandeur and majesty of nature, as this profession. As an engineer, l would be constantly out in the open, Working for my country both in rain and sunshine, Besides this, engineers are constantly on the move. They cannot be at one place for any length of time. As soon as some construction work at one place is completed, they must move on to some other place to take up borne fresh work, In this way, engineers get an opportunity of seeing their motherland from one end to the other. They meet new people and enjoy new scenes and sight. I feel that life of an engineer is a glorious adventure throughout, Hence, I aspire, for it.

          To achieve my ambition, I am working hard for a good division in the Intermediate examination. As soon as the examinations are over, I would prepare whole heartedly for the competition for various engineering institutions, with your good wishes and the blessings of God, I am confident of success.
          Rest is as usual. Do let me hear from you more frequently.

          yours sincerely

          X Y Z

          Thursday, 1 August 2019




          In this article, you will find Both Long and Short esaays on My favourite hobby for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12 etc. You can use these essays in assignments or in school competition.

          My Hobby Collecting Stamps Essay For Class 3, 4, 5

          A hobby is a pursuit undertaken by a person in his leisure time as a pleasant pastime. Hobbies vary from man to man. As for me, I am fond of collecting old postal stamps and coins. There is a special reason behind the choice of my hobby. History is my favourite subject. The doings and dealings of men in the past fascinate me a great deal. The old stamps and coins with printed pictures of different personalities and scenes remind me of the past. In my imagination I travel through the unknown lands. It was my uncle who motivated me to collect stamps. He lives in Australia from where he keeps sending me various colourful stamps and coins of different countries and periods. Now I am in possession of a rich collection of both stamps and coins. I am proud of my rich possession. However, I am not obsessed with stamp and coin collection all the time. I pursue these hobbies only during my leisure time because my primary interest lies in my studies and improvement of my career.

          My Hobby Reading Books Essay For Class 6, 7, 8

          The hobbies give us mental and bodily relaxation when we are tired of our daily routine. So, hobby is very important for mental and physical fitness. Owing to this importance hobbies, I have also a well cherished hobby for my leisure time. I love to read books in my leisure time. Books are a wonderful blessing. It is true that a hobby shows one's taste and interest.
          "Leisure time reveals what kind of person we are."
          I have hundreds of books in my personal library. Reading a book is perhaps the greatest source of pleasure to a cultured and erudite person. Reading broadens his outlook, drives away his narrow prejudices and lightens up his mind with truth and knowledge. Books are our best friends. They never deceive or desert us in our hour of need like so many of our human friends, and the advantages once received from the reading of books remain with us throughout our lives.
          "A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies."
          I like to read the books of the master minds of the past that have brightened up the ages with the strength and beauty of their vision. As we read their books. we seem to see them appear before us. We seem to talk with them and they also seem to instruct us through medium of their books. 

          My Hobby Photography Essay For Class 9, 10, 12

          Different people have different hobbies. They say as many people so many hobbies. A hobby is a leisure time activity. Whatever spare time you get, you utilize the same in a re-creative activity, in an interesting pastime. Time does not hang heavy on you. You do not kill the time. You do not bide it. Rather you spend it in a gainful way. It passes in a jiffy. You do not know when the time slipped out of your hands. 

          A teacher's job is teaching. He dabbles with books day and night. But if he develop the habit of reading for pleasure or recreation, then certainly it is not his profession. We shall call it is hobby. Similarly a doctor's work is medication, surgery and operation, but if he takes to gardening or light reading or stamp collecting, surely he is pursuing something after his heart. Again, we will say it is his hobby. 

          My hobby is photography. I like to take snaps and photos. I click camera too often. I have a collection of many kinds of cameras. I maintain a number of albums. At and when I move out of the four walls of the house, the camera must dangle from my shoulders. Whatever is beautiful and pretty, I close it in my lens. 

          Photography is very good hobby. It is interesting and appealing. Beautiful snapshots are certainly captivating. You fall in love with them at the first sight. The nature is bountiful. It provides ample opportunities to a person who hunts with a camera. Again, wildlife, flora and fauna gives you a close picture. You see the king of the Jungle from very close quarter. You click your camera and snap becomes a memorable event. 

          If you have interest and can spend a few chips, do adopt this rewarding hobby. When you become an expert, you can hold exhibitions of your collection. People will buy them. They will praise you, they will garland you. You will be known as an adept photographer.

          Wednesday, 24 July 2019

          Long and Short Essay on Life in a Indian Village

          Long and Short Essay on Life in a Indian Village

          Essay on Life in a Indian Village for Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Find paragraph, long and short essay on Essay on LIFE IN AN INDIAN VILLAGE for your Kids, Children and Students.

          Long and Short Essay on Life in a Indian Village

          Below we have provided different essays of varied word lengths on Essay on Life in a Indian Villages. After going through the essays you will be able to write an essay or paragraph on Essay on Life in a Indian Village. You can also use the information given here in school competitions – essay writing, speeches and debates.


          India is a country of villages. Life in a Indian Villages is quite simple. Villages have their own beauty and charm. Gradually trees are vanishing from towns and cities. But they are found in plenty in villages. The villagers live a healthy and peaceful life. They live in a natural setting. There is no smoke and noise of the factories. They breathe fresh air which invigorates their health. They are God fearing. They are true and sincere. They are far away from the madding crowd. There is very little pandemonium. Village folks do quarrel as we quarrel but on the whole they are very simple minded. Now we City people prefer village life to city life.


          Life in a village is ideal. Our villages are no longer dirty and dusty. They are highly clean and tidy. They are disease free. There the climate is quite congenial and lively. Villagers are illiterate, though education is catching up with them. They understand each and everything. They are now no more backward.

          They lives in the lap of mother nature in a village. There are open fields, Persian wells and tube-wells too. The canal flows through the village or around the village. People are happy and gay. They have plenty of live-stock such as buffaloes, cows, bullocks, camels, goats and sheep. They graze them, they milk them. They use the bullocks in the ploughing of the fields. They raise fences around their fields. They sow seeds, plant nursery. Their crops are tall and high. They reap the golden harvests. They thrash out corn. They are the growers of country's food-grains.

          They have plenty enough and to spare. Not only do they feed themselves but also feed the rest of 121 crore population of India. A visit to a village is worthwhile and worth-enjoying. We cannot imagine the real village life until we go there in person. We live with these simple folks. We sing with them, we dance with their children. We go deep into their day to day joys and sorrows. We will find that they are good natured, well mannered and extremely well behaved. They are not quarrelsome either. They are liberal and broad minded. These simple folks forgive and forget the bad things of city-bred people. 

          A village is lined with trees and gardens. The village temple or mosque is busy in worshipping god or allah. There are people who mind there own business. They are not showy. They are greatly unpretentious. They do not breed contempt. They do not indulge in drinking, gambling or litigation. They have their own gram panchayat. They settle their petty cases with ease and love. If you ever happen to go to an indian village, you will taste the simplicity of life in abundance there. You will like to be one with these god-fearing people.


          India is an agricultural country. A large part of India’s population lives in villages. Life in an Indian village is different from what we can see in a city. A collection of huts and houses surrounded by fields all around is a general view of an Indian village. Most of the people in a village are concerned with farming or related activities. Their life is simple, but interesting. 

          The villagers live in the midst of natural surroundings. The charms of nature make a village an ideal place to live. As we rise early in the morning, we can listen to the sweet songs of birds, feel cool breeze brushing us past and see the dancing trees and grasses. We can enjoy the beauty of the rising sun and the cool breeze at day’s dawn. The river flows with a murmur sound, its current shining in the sunlight so bright and beautiful that no electrical ornamentation of the towns can match it. 

          The villagers live a healthy and peaceful life. They live in a natural setting. There is no smoke and noise of the factories. They breathe fresh air which invigorates their health. They get fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, uncontaminated food, pure ghee and milk. There is no hustle and bustle and no worry like that of a modern city life. The villagers therefore are happy and healthy. Their desires and needs rare few. They are satisfied with what they have and never dream of those luxuries and comforts that modern science has provided us. 

          Of course a modern Indian village is not all huts and ploughs. We can very well find good houses and all modern machinery for farming. Gone are the days of the plough and hand-tills; now is the era of tractors and threshers. Many of the farming activities are performed by machines, and it is necessary because we have to feed a very large population. 

          As farming is mechanized to a large scale, villagers have spare time to do other activities. So, they migrate to cities to look for other avenues. Many of them adopt other occupations in the village itself, such as spinning, weaving, carpentry, pottery and other handicrafts. Besides this, some people open shops and help the villagers to meet their necessities. 

          Villagers are socially knit together. Their life is interdependent. They help one another for the supply of their daily wants. They share one another’s joys and sorrows. They help one another in times of need. Their social sense is so strong that the guest of and one villager is considered as the guest of all villagers. Each villager is familiar even with the family history of other villagers. In the evening, they assemble in the village chaupal with their hukkas (hubble-bubbles) and chilams (smoking pipes). They discuss their joys and sorrows, and current topics. This place is also used for recreation in the form of jokes and plays.  

          Life in an Indian village has some drawbacks too. Villagers are extremely poor. Most of them live in one room kuchha mud houses, whose roofs often leak in the rains. The roads are kuchha so they are put to great hardship. In spite of their hard work, they are not able to earn enough to provide themselves with even two square meals a day. They are ill-fed and ill-fed. As they are not able to save anything from their meager income, in times of need they have to borrow from the village moneylender who charges very high rates of interest. They are frequently in debt which they are rarely able to repay. The government has made some effort to improve their condition, but it is not enough and much more needs to be done still.

          Villagers are illiterate, though education is catching up with them. Many of them do not know how to read and write. There are no suitable arrangements for the education of their children. Their ignorance makes them superstitious and conservative. They are content with older methods of cultivation and do not like scientific methods. It is a matter of satisfaction that the condition of villages is improving, but it is taking so much of time.