Friday, 29 November 2019

 Write a letter to your friend inviting him to spend holidays on the hill-station with you.

Write a letter to your friend inviting him to spend holidays on the hill-station with you.

Write a letter to your friend inviting him to spend summer vacation with you at a hill station

472, The Mall,
12 April 20XX

Dear Friend Raj,

It gives me pleasure to learn that your school will close on May 16 for the summer vacation. My parents have asked me to invite you to spend your holidays with us.

I cannot forget the heat of plains when we were studying together at Patiala. The moment my father was transferred, I had a desire to invite you at Shimla. It is, you know, the best hill-station. It has various picnic spots such as Jakhu, Prospects hill, Glenn, Chedwich Fals etc. When I go to school in the morning, you will study at home. After I return from school, we shall be going for outing. In the evening, we shall go to the Mall and return home late in the night. Confirm your program by return of post.

Yours sincerely,

Saturday, 16 November 2019

A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.

A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.

In this article, we are providing a sample letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons so that student may learn how to write a formal letter refusing an invitation.

A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.

57 Fenton St.,
27th April 2019
Subject: A letter refusing an invitation to a birthday party and giving reasons.
Dear Betty,
Thank you very much for inviting me to your birthday party, but I'm afraid I shan't be able to come.

We have had so much to do at the office this week that Mr Simpson has asked me to work overtime for a few days. I promised I would and now there's nothing I can do about it. I'll be thinking of you when I'm typing piles of letters!

I hope your party is a success and I wish you many happy returns.
Yours sincerely,
A letter expressing Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

A letter expressing Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

A letter expressing Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

The Star Hotel, 
14 Preston Ave., 
London, S.W.5,
15th Aug. 19

Subject: Your first impressions of London shortly after your arrival.

Dear Madeline,
I arrived in London last night and your friend Peter met me at the station. I'm glad he was there because I don't think I should ever have found my hotel alone.

Although I haven't seen much yet, I think I'm going to enjoy myself here. Last night Peter and I went for a short' walk. I had never imagined London was quite so big. We walked for over two hours and I had to take a train to get back to the hotel!

I'll write again in a few days' time and I'm sure I'll have a lot to tell you.
Yours sincerely,
A letter regretting that a friend of yours cannot come with you on an excursion

A letter regretting that a friend of yours cannot come with you on an excursion

A letter regretting that a friend of yours cannot come with you on an excursion and expressing the hope that he will be able to come another time.

18 Middleton St., 
London, W.C.I.
14th June, 19
Dear Tom,
Your card arrived this morning and you can imagine how disappointed I was to hear that you have caught another dreadful cold. You could at least have waited for a day or two!
I saw Ron last night and we made final arrangements for tomorrow's excursion. We'll be setting off very early. I promise I won't oversleep this time! However nice the weather is, the trip won't be the same without you.
I hope you won't be too miserable in bed and that you'll be able to come with us next week as usual.
Yours sincerely

Tuesday, 12 November 2019

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan : Kocheril Raman Narayanan also known as K. R. Narayanan was the tenth President of India. In this essay we will know about K.R. Narayanan's early life, family, Education and Political Career.

500 words Essay on K. R. Narayanan

Shri K.R. Narayanan was the tenth President of India. He took over this responsible position after the retirement of Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, the former President. He was sworn in as President of India on 25th July 1997. Even before that he had been holding the key position of Vice-President since 1992.

Essay on K. R. Narayanan
Our brilliant administrator and a great scholar was born in a small village at Uzhoor of Kottayam District of Kerala on October 27, 1920. Though he was brought up in poverty but due to his hard labour he rose to the highest position of President of the largest democracy in the world. He topped in the examination of Matriculation. In the same way he passed M.A. in English literature from the University of Travancore, Kerala in 1943 and stood first class first. He got married to Shrimati Usha Narayanan on June 8, 1951. He has two daughters.

After completing his education he searched for a job. The Diwan of Travancore offered him a clerical job but he refused. He came to Delhi and worked for sometimes in the Commerce and Industry' a weekly magazine. After sometime he worked as journalist in 'The Hindu' in Madras and ‘The Times of India' Bombay during 1944-45. He became a London correspondent of 'Social Welfare' a weekly published from Bombay and edited by Shri K.M. Munshi during 1945-48. It was due to journalism that he got the Tata Scholarship for higher studies in London school of Economics. After his return to India he joined Indian Foreign Services in 1949 and served with the Indian Mission in Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Australia. He was India's ambassador to 

  1. Thailand during 1967-69 
  2. Turkey during 1973-75
  3. the Peoples Republic of China (1976-78) and 
  4. United States of America (1980-84).
He held many important positions in Ministry of External Affairs. Director in 

  1. East Asia Division 
  2. External Publicity Division; 
joint Secretary in Policy Planning Division; Additional Secretary in 1975-76; Secretary in 1976. From 1954 to 1955 he was on leave from the Indian Foreign Services and taught Economic Administration at Delhi School of Economics and headed the Orientation centre for Foreign Technicians.

He became Vice-Chancellor of Jawahar Lal Nehru University Delhi in 1979-80. Afterwards when Smt. Indira Gandhi rose to power, he was sent to U.S.A. as an ambassador. In 1984 he won the election as a congress candidate from Kerala State and joined Lok Sabha as State Minister in the Ministry of Planning, Foreign Affairs, Science and Technology. In 1991 he again won the election but could not enter the Ministry of Shri Narsimha Rao. On July 29 in 1992 the Ruling Party declared him Vice President. He won the favour of opposition parties also and he was sworn in as Vice President on August 21, 1992. After five years he rose to the highest position of President of India.

He was awarded Honarary Doctorate degree by the University of Toledo in U.S.A. in 1987. He is author of many articles on literature, Politics and international Affairs. He wrote three books 'India and America', Essays in Understanding, Images and Insight and, 'Non-alignment in Contemporary International Relation', jointly with Prof. K.P. Misra. His favourite hobbies are reading and writing poetry and literature and walking. He is a man of versatile abilities. As the President of India he led the country to the soaring heights of progress.

Monday, 4 November 2019

Essay on Technology and rural Development

Essay on Technology and rural Development

Essay on Technology and rural Development

Introduction – The necessity and importance of rural uplift 
The present condition of Indian villages 
Methods of improvement. 
  1. Education of the villagers 
  2. Modernisation of agriculture 
  3. Development  of cottage industries. 
  4. Provision of medical aid. 
  5. Reforms in social life. 
  6. Other reforms 
Conclusion – The Government and the people should make joint efforts.
India lives in her villages. If we want to see real India, we must go to the villages. About 80 percent of the population of India lives in the villages. They are the backbone of the country. Without improvement in their day to day life the country cannot march ahead. So the progress of the village is the progress of the country.

The condition of villages is pitiable. There is extreme poverty everywhere. The customs and traditions of the villagers are quite out of date. They are ignorant and superstitious. Though agriculture is their main occupation, yet it does not provide even two full meals a day to many of them. Illiteracy is widespread. Villages have become the home of epidemics and other disease. They lack medical facilities. Even in this scientific age, there are many villages which are cut off from their neighbouring towns. Thus in villages we find only suffering, disease, poverty and ignorance.

For real rural reconstruction, different problems must be solved at one and the same time. Piecemeal and half-hearted efforts will make no difference to the life of villagers. The following improvements must be made without further delay.

Ignorance is the root cause of many evils. It is the outcome of illiteracy. Hence villagers must be educated. More and more schools should be made free and compulsory. Arrangements should be made for adult education. For this, night schools should be started. Education of girls is as important as the education of boys. Girl’s schools should also be opened.

Poverty is the greatest curse in these days. To improve the economic condition of the villagers, agriculture must be modernized. They should be made to use better seeds, chemical fertilizers and scientific methods of agriculture. The yield per acre of land can only be increased through mechanized farming. For this, land-holdings should be consolidated. Better irrigation facilities should be made available. Through these measures, production is bound to increase. Increased production will lead to better economic condition.

Agriculture is a seasonal occupation. So in many months of the year, farmers remain idle. Village industries should be developed to keep them busy during idle months. It is only through cottage industries that the problem of part-time unemployment and total unemployment can be solved. This will enable the villagers to supplement their agricultural income.

Poor economic condition has affected the health of the villagers. The sanitation in villages is bad. We find pools of dirty water. The houses are mostly ill-ventilated and have no sanitary arrangement. So the conditions favourable for the breeding of germs of various diseases are always-present. Moreover, our villages lack medical facilities. Hospitals should be opened to provide medical aid. Gaon Sabhas should be made responsible for maintaining healthy sanitary conditions. This is necessary for rural uplift.

Villagers are the victims of various social evils. Litigation is a pastime for them. They remain under debt from generation to generation. As has been well said, ‘an Indian farmer is born in debt, lives in debt and dies in debt’. They are superstitious. They are slaves of customs and traditions. Social reforms must form an integral part of any programme of rural uplift.

Villagers do not have adequate means of recreation. This is a great handicap of village life. Cheap and healthy methods of enjoyment should be provided. Radio and T.V. sets should be fixed at public places. Public reading rooms and libraries should be opened. Provision for games and sports must be made. Such means of recreation will provide good diversion for villagers in their spare time.

The problem of rural uplift is gigantic. Without the active co-operation of the people and the Government, the condition of villages cannot be improved. Let the Government and the people make joint efforts to improve the condition of Indian villages. Our beloved Prime Minister, late Shri Rajiv Gandhi, launched the “Jawahar Rozgar Yojna” and a chapter has now been added to the Indian constitution to make Panchayati Raj a reality. In this way, it is hoped, real power will come to the people and power- brokers and vested interests will be done away with. Therein lies the salvation of our country.     

Wednesday, 23 October 2019




Examination are a necessary evil. They cannot be completely done away with. In any educational system, they must occupy an important place. Yet the way and the form in which they are held need reform. There are so many serious defects in the present system of examination that their purpose is completely defeated. They fail in measuring the progress of students. Many ways of reforming the examination system have been suggested. One is the Setting of objective-type questions, instead of the present system in which the questions require long, essay-type answers, In this way, it becomes possible to Cover the whole Course and the personal factor is eliminated. This method has been used so far with success in pre-medical and other competitive examinations. But its great drawback is that it does not develop the expressive power of the students, Careful thinking is necessary before objective tests are introduced in schools and Colleges.

At present, examinations have become meaningless, for there is copying on a mass Scale. Copying Is rampant even in the cities, and in the best of institutions. Students take with them into the examination hall cheap bazaar notes and copy out the answers from them. If the invigilators try to prevent the use of such unfair means, they are threatened with dire consequences. In the rural areas, conditions are much worse. There copying is organised by teachers and other interested parties, with the active cannivance of the school authorities, examination suprintendants, Principals etc. Answers are dictated in the examination halls or written out on the black-boards.

Therefore, there is urgent need for the over-hauling of the present system of examinations. Various measures of reform have been suggested from time to time. One of the suggestions is that students should be allowed to take books of their choice into the examination hall, and make free use of them. Questions should be so framed that those students alone who are well up in the subject and have studied their books would be able to find out the right answers. Moreover, as the number of questions would be pretty large, the examinees would not get much time to search out the answers in their books. This again would make previous preparation essential. In this way, the whole course would be covered up and the examinees' would be obliged to make due preparations. As books would be freely allowed, the problem of mass copying or the use of unfair means would cease to exist. It would be automatically solved.

Thus there is much to be said in favour of 'open book examinations’. However, this system should be introduced with great caution. Initially, it should be introduced on a very limited scale, and its scope may then be widened in the light of the experience thus acquired. Intelligent framing of questions in crucial for the success of this system. A number of Government departments such as the C.D.A., P.W.D, etc., have been holding such examinations for many years. The experience gained by them can be of great value and many pitfalls can be avoided if they are consulted before this innovation is introduced in schools and colleges of the country. Much depends on the integrity and efficiency of teachers who will have to implement and work out the scheme.

Wednesday, 16 October 2019

Co-education : its advantages and disadvantages / Essay on Co Education is Good or Bad ?

Co-education : its advantages and disadvantages / Essay on Co Education is Good or Bad ?

Co-education : its advantages and disadvantages / Essay on Co Education is Good or Bad ?

Co-education is that education in which boys and girls read in a common college and sit together in the same classes. Co-education was not prevalent in ancient India. It is of recent origin. It is a foreign system. In ancient India, boys and girls of young age were kept separate from each other. This was thought essential to maintain the purity of their character. That is why so many of our elders are against co-education. They point out many defects of this system of education. Some of them are given below.

When young boys and girls come closer to each other, they care more for each other than for their books. They get busy in making friends with each other. The boys chase their girl class-fellows on their cycles. Sometimes, they even deceive their parents. Under one or the other pretext, they remain away from their homes and enjoy the company of their friends of the opposite sex in the cinema hall. The precious time of study is thus lost owing to sex attraction.

Inside classrooms, the students try to attract the attention of their friends of the opposite sex. They become absent-minded. Boys keep combs in their pockets and dress up their hair off and on, even while the teacher is lecturing. All sorts of motions, gestures, and signs are made in the class. This is decidedly a sign of indiscipline. The entire atmosphere of co-educational institutions is one of indiscipline.

The evil effects of co-education on character cannot be denied. Purity of character is impossible is such an atmosphere. Such educational institutions are, more or less, fashion places. Girls and boys of such colleges try to be heroes and heroines of the cinema. The latest fashions are imitated. In fact, all sorts of undesirable habits are formed and good qualities of character are sacrificed.

In spite of all this, all is not bad with co-education. In free democratic India, girls cannot be denied education. Along with the boys, girls also must be educated. Now, to run separate schools, in spite of an inadequate number of girl students, is uneconomical. Separate institutions for girls should be established only at big places where sufficient number of girls are always forthcoming to seek admissions. Through co-education much wastage is avoided and the cause of female education also does not suffer.

Co-education is good from the social point of view also. Young boys and girls get good opportunity to understand with each other. They have to work in different walks of life in co-operation with each other. So, through co-education, a healthy spirit of working together
 is developed. Some of these young students choose their life-partners from among their class fellows. In this way, the problem of marriage for many parents is solved. Boys and girls educated together prove more successful in their family and social life. This is due to the understanding of each other’s psychology which they get during the period of their education.

Keeping in view all the good and bad points of co-education we must say that we cannot totally reject it. There is no harm in educating girls and boys together in primary classes. They can study there as brothers and sisters. Co-education is dangerous for the boys and girls of High School and Inter classes. At this age, several physical and mental changes take place. During this period, students must not be allowed to go astray. Total separation from each other is essential. Hence, co-education does not suit this age group. Again, in university classes co-education may be allowed. By this stage boys and girls become sufficiently mature. They begin to understand their good and bad. So co-education can do no harm to them.

Sunday, 6 October 2019

Long and Short Essay on A Morning Walk

Long and Short Essay on A Morning Walk

Essay on A MORNING WALK : Today, we are providing Long and short paragraph and Essay on A MORNING WALK in English for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Students can choose these essay according to their need.

    A MORNING WALK Essay For Class 1 & 2

    Below is a Paragraph or Short essay on a Morning walk written for class 1 and 2 under 100 to 150 words catagory.

    Morning time is the best time. An early riser catches the lark. One who is lazy and lethargic misses a lot in life. He is certainly not a gainer. One who gets up in the morning, he can finish hundreds of work. He can go to a nearby garden. There he can walk, exercise or jog. He can make his health. A morning walk is extremely useful and beneficial. The nature is at peace. There is no din and noise. There is no dust and dirt. A cool breeze blows. The birds chirp. The stream flows majestically. Gandhi ji advocated morning walk. One paces leisurely. One is not in a great haste. Dew-drops shine like pearls. Greenery is very useful to eyes and brain. While walking bare-footed on the green and dewy grass, one feels young and buoyant. A fresh breeze fills new life in us. The flowers give out sweet fragrance. Morning walk keeps everyone fresh and cheerful throughout the day. It is the best beginning of the day. 

    A Morning Walk Essay For Class 3 & 4

    Below is a essay on a Morning walk written for class 3 and 4 under 200 to 250 words catagory.

    Exercise is very good for health. The lightest exercise iswalk. A walk in the morning is especially useful. It is useful to persons of all age groups. It refreshes one's mind. It keeps one medically fit.

    It is another thing that all people do not get up early.Some people find it difficult to go out in winter. I, however,get up early in the morning. I have cultivated this habit since childhood. I never miss my morning walk.

    Igoto the canal bank. I take my friends with me. We have to walk three miles. The atmosphere on the way is free from dust and smoke. There is no rush, no traffic.

    Nature is at her best in the early hours. The morningbreeze is cool, fresh and fragrant. The birds sing sweet songs. Their young-ones chirp. The gentle air producessweet music by striking against the leaves. The dew dropson the green grass shine like pearls.

    Along the canal, there is a park. It is beautifully laid out.Flowers of different kinds and hues are grown there. Someof the flowers are seasonal. Others keepthroughout the year.The fresh flowers laden with dew wave their heads in themorning breeze. There is nothing but fragrance all around.

    We take some exercise in the park. Some of us walkbare-footed on the grass. People take yoga exercises.Soon the sun appears. It looks like a ball of fire. Themingling of sun rays with the beautiful objects of nature, inthe presence of cool breeze, produce a pleasant effect.

    We take our way back home. After reaching home. I take bath. I get ready for the school. I keep active and fresh throughout the day. At night, I enjoy sound sleep.

    A MORNING WALK Essay For Class 5 & 7

    Below is an essay on a Morning walk written for class 5 and 7 under 300 to 350 words catagory.

    Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. It is said 'an early bird catches a lark.' Early in the morning the atmosphere is calm and quiet. Serenity (calmness) reigns everywhere. There is no din and noise. There is no dirt and dust. There are no traffic hold-ups. The roads are lonely. The hooting of the factories is nowhere to disturb. The smokeless atmosphere is quite fit for an early morning walk.

    There are a few morning walkers who are lucky enough as to sit the nectar of the dawn. People go to nearby parks or Gardens. The birds chip there. The koel sings a happy note. It attracts every heart. Many do a lot of exercise. A few skid and jog. Many others inhale and exhale. They take along breaths to cleanse the impurity of the lungs. The beautiful flowers and plants Captivate our hearts and minds. The dew drops sparkle in the rays of the Rising Sun. Walking on them with bare feet cool the fatigued nerves. They prove soothing. They are extremely useful to Eyes. The medical science says that dewdrops are amply beneficial to the ailments of the eyes. A smiling Blossom welcomes you. You get a new lease of life

    A morning walk by the river-side is also highly useful. There the people have long walks on either bank of the river. Most of the old people stroll there for hours. They get the joy of their life. People bathe and swim in the river. Swimming is a very good exercise. It is also a part of the morning walk. some do sun-bath. It is said early rays of the sun give lustre to the body. They strengthen the sinews (muscles). They turn your body structure into a rod of Steel. 

    An Early Riser finishes his morning work at once. He is at a great advantage. He remains smart and alert the whole day. He never falls ill. It is all due to regular morning walks. Its uses are too many but only a few lucky reap this Golden harvest.

    A MORNING WALK Essay For Class 7, 8 & 9

    Below is a Long essay on a Morning walk written for class 7, 8 and 9 under 350 to 400 words catagory with Headings.

    Introduction : There are no two opinions about the fact that a morning walk is a boon for health. No diet or tonic is as effective as the morning walk. One has to pay nothing for it.

    Morning scene : I take a walk every morning with my friend Raju. Raiu is my class-mate and next door neighbour. We walk along the road. This lonely road leads out of the town.

    Yesterday we started at 5 a.m. As we went out a cool morning breeze welcomed us. We passed through some fields of wheat.The spreading fields presented a beautiful scene. The chirping of the birds created a lively sensation in our hearts.

    Some farmers were ploughing their fields at a distance. We passed through a small village where we saw village young women going to draw water. They were singing sweet folk songs. We enjoyed these songs very much. We felt some thrill which Wordsworth must have felt on hearing the song of the Solitary Reaper.

    Scene in the sun light : The golden ball of sun appeared in the East. The horizon was shining with a golden light. With folded hands we stood for a few minutes to pay our respect to the Sun-God. Bright rays or light made the scenery more attractive andpleasing.

    Along the bank of a steam : We walked and walked till we reached the stream. It flows near our town. We sat on its bank and took rest for some time. We saw a garden nearby. We walked into it.

    In the garden : There were grassy plots. We walked bare-footed on this grass. We enjoyed the fragrance of the beautiful flowers growing on a large number of plants.

    The return : Asit was about seven in the morning, we walkedback towards our homes. We had covered a distance of kilometers from our homes. Now we hastened back and reach home at 8. a.m.

    Its effect on me : When I returned home from my walk I found the nature changed. All the sights and sounds had a wonderful effect on my body and mind. My mind became fresh and active. The fatigue which was caused by learning my lessons seemed to be gone. I felt that I had energy enough to do my work with ease.

    Conclusion : A walk in the morning keeps us healthy and strong. It gives a good start to our day.

    Monday, 30 September 2019




    For a long time the Indian opposition parties have been loudly demanding an Autonomous Broadcasting Corporation and charging the Government with the misuse of these powerful media of mass communication. It was forgotten that the ruling party has to convey its achievements, plans, and objectives, to the masses and also undo the campaign of misinformation and distortion that is unleashed by position from time to time.

    The various parties that constituted the National Front government made the autonomy of T.V. and Radio an important item in their election menifestoes for the election to the IX Lok Sabha held in November-December  1989. The ruling Congress government was criticized for misusing these powerful media and it was said, that if elected to power, thay will soon end this misuse and establish an autonomous corporation to put an end to such misuse.

    So soon after coming of the V.P. Singh Government into power, The Prasar Bharti Bill was drafted and tabled in the Lok Sabha in December.1989, so that it may be taken up for discussion and approval in the monsoon session. Let us first examine its provisions in detail and then see if they really make T.V. and Radio autonomous.

    It is proposed through the Bill to set up a single autonomous corporation (to be known as the Prasar Bharti Broadcasting Corporation of India) with two distinct wings- television and radio-to ensure its working in fair, objective creative manner. According to the Bill, the corporation will have a 10 member Board of Governors with four full time members and also, an 11 member broadcasting council. The council will monitor the working of the corporation and hear complaints.

    Under the bill, the Government will have the right to make rules for the corporation and remove or suspend the Governors after reference to the Supreme Court. The annual accounts of the corporation will be certified by the Controller and Auditor General and presented to the Central Government for laying them before the Parliament. It was presumed that the proposed corporation would function as a genuinely autonomous body, innovative, dynamic and flexible, with a high degree of credibility. However, one difficulty was conveniently forgotten or ignored. It was forgotten that T.V. and the Radio have a combined income of nearly 200 crores while the expenditure on the proposed corporation would run to over Rs. 280 crores. As the subsidy 'or financial aid would be supplied by the Govt., its hold over the media would continue. It will not be autonomous in the real sense.

    The proposed structure of the corporation takes into account the need for ensuring that radio and television, which belong to two distinct ways of communication, are enabled to evolve and grow in their own way while ensuring co-operation of overall approach which alone can ensure that the requirements of the people regarding entertainment, information and education are met, that the programmes are useful for all.

    The Board of Governors will consist of a Chairman, an executive Governor, two Governors in-charge of finance and personnel, and six part-time governors. The Board will also have a representative of the Information and Broadcasting ministry. One of the important provisions has already been modified the Chairman of the corporation will only be a part-time officer so that there may be no conflict between the Chairman and the other Governors.

    The Chairman and other Governors will be appointed by the President on the recommendation of a committe comprising of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, the Chairman of the Press Council, and a nominee of the President of India, The Chairman and the Governors shall be persons of eminence from public life. The Governors will be people with considerable experience in various fields assigned to them. This provision has come in for a good deal of criticism as an insult to the personnel working on the staff of the media. It has been said that it is a slur on their experience and efficiency, and protests have been made against it.

    The Executive Governor will be the Chief Executive of the corporation. The Broadcasting Council will receive and consider complaints, and advise the corporation in the discharge of its functions, It will also receive complaints from any person claiming to have been treated unjustly or unfairly including unwarranted invasion of privacy, misinterpretation, distortion, lack of objective. The Elected Government may issue to the corporation directions it considers necessary in the interest of the security of the state or preservation of public order.

    The staff of the AlR and the T.V. is unhappy about the Bill. Too much of bureaucratic control over the media is feared. A number of provisions of the Bill go against the very concept of autonomy. No doubt P. Upendra, the former Union Information and Broadcasting Minister, did go to the UK. and the U.S.A. to study there the functioning of their Broadcasting corporations. But then the question has been repeatedly asked if the Government did not have full knowledge of the working of these bodies, and if not, why did it make its election promises regarding this issue, without making a full depth study of the whole problem. The Minister might have returned from his foreign tours wiser and with more knowledge but will the newly gained wisdom and knowledge help him much when he is back in his chair in Shastri Bhavan to deal with the autonomy question again?

    However, one fears that it is not lack of knowledge on the part of the Government that deters it from going ahead with its plan of giving autonomy to Doordarshan and All India Radio. The real problem is that no Government wants to relinquish control over such powerful media. If the Congress blatantly misused the electronic media, the National Front Government also wanted to retain its control over them. This explains why the Prasar Bharati Bill has turned out to be a joke.

    The proposed amendments to the bill go against the very concept of autonomy which the National F u and other Opposition parties had promised during the general elections. In the bill, a board of governors, consisting of persons of eminence, integrity and independence is envisaged to ensure the autonomy of the electronic media but there is also a proposal to add a sub-clause which will empower Government to suspend or dissolve the board in the interest of "national security". Another proposal is to entrust the Government with powers to suspend the entire Act in emergency-like situations. Evidently, the N.F. Government developed cold feet on the autonomy question with the result that it wanted to settle for a diluted autonomy for the electronic media. After an initial hands off phase, the National Front Government could not resist the temptation of making use of radio and T.V. for propaganda.

    The problem is a complicated one and no simplistic solution is possible. The more one thinks over the matter the more is one convinced that it is all a political affair, and not a desire for real autonomy. We may add that the Chandar Shekhar Government which succeeded the V.P. Singh Government has not been able upto date to give thought to this problem. It has been pre-occupied with other more pressing problems.
    What is Hawala? And its Impacts OR Political Corruption

    What is Hawala? And its Impacts OR Political Corruption

    What is Hawala? And its Impacts OR Political Corruption

    Corruption in one form or another has always existed, Kautilya, in his Arthashastra, writes, "Just as it is impossible not to taste the honey or the poison that finds itself at the tip of the tongue, so it is impossible for a government servant not to eat up a bit of the kings revenue.” But never before had the ruling government of any country been involved in such wide spread bribery. Never before the rulers have sold their country in this fashion. No scandal has ever created such pandemonium sweeping across the entire political establishment as the Jain hawala pay offs have done.

    A world wide study ranked India as the third most corrupt country in the world. Even then there was no sense of shame among the political wide of the country because taking money seemed almost right to them. Moreover, there was some relief that there were two other countries ahead to them. Yet, when the hawala allegations started showing up, it seemed that no other country could be as corrupt as ours.

    What is Hawala? Hawala consists of illegal foreign exchange deals. Through this trade, bribes received abroad can be brought into the country, bypassing official channels. Also bribes received within the country can be converted into dollars and slashed away in secret bank accounts abroad Huge profits are made, since the foreign exchange is converted at black market rates. The process is quite simple. If a multinational company wants to acquire a contract in India, it pays dollars to a hawals agent abroad. His counterpart makes rupee payments to bureaucrats in India in rupees, converting the money at black market rates. Foreign powers who want to destabilize the country too make payments abroad and the hawala agent makes rupee payments to terrorists within the country. So it can be said that if hawala had been controlled there would have been no rise in militancy in India, the Bombay blasts may never have happened.

    In the country bureaucrats and politicians also use the hawala channel for sending their load of money abroad. The agent is paid rupees in India and his counterpart convert and deposit the money in secret accounts in a foreign country.

    India and Indians have lived with corruption for years. For the time being it can be said that the political history of corruption starts with independence and ends with the hawala racket. But for once the people of lndia hope that the culprits though high statured will be punished. However, the hawala case can find its place in history only if it is a turning point and is used as a right opportunity to reform the corrupt political system of our country.

    Thursday, 26 September 2019



    "WHEN LIBERTY BECOMES LICENCE, DICTATORSHIP IS NEAR" is a quotation which tells us the misuse of liberty in democracy. In this Essay, We will learn that how the Excessive liberty for one class of society deprivates of liberty for other classes because liberty may be endangered by the abuse of liberty.


    The quotation warns us against the misuse of democratic freedom. Freedom must not be allowed to degenerate into licence, for such degeneration ultimately leads to the loss of all freedom and the establishment of Dictatorship. In the pre-emergency days there was a spurt of violent agitations, strikes and lock-outs. Late Shri Jai Prakash Narain even called upon the police and the armed forces to revolt. Liberty completely degenerated into Licence, with the result that late Indira Gandhi was compelled to impose emergency. Democracy was thus derailed and replaced by near dictatorship. Hence the writer warns us not to misuse our freedom in our own interest.

    Excessive liberty for one class of society means deprivation of liberty for other classes. This leads to conflict, and dictatorship is often the results. The French Revolution occurred because the aristocracy enjoyed uncurtailed liberty, which imposed untoled hardships on other classes. Besides, liberty is essentially a product of rules; excessive liberty on the other hand implies an abandonment of rules. This leads to chaos, and chaos leads almost inevitably to dictatorship or totalitarian form of government.

    Almost all the revolutions the world has seen have been preceded by periods of utter licence and abandonment. However, when excessive liberty is one sphere of activity is compensated for by restraint and sobriety in others, it may not lead to dictatorship. During the Italian Renaissance, there was complete liberty in the art and sciences, but not in the economic or religious sphere. Consequently, there was neither hardship for any class, nor dictatorship.

    Emergence of dictatorship in a number of countries of the world is the direct result of the misuse of liberty. Till recently, there was dictatorship in Pakistan for this very reason and military coups are the order of the day in most African countries. All this shows that the people must understand the meaning of liberty and the limits within which it can be enjoyed. Under no circumstances should they take the law in their own hands. If they do so, they may be sure that dictatorship is at hand.     

    Sunday, 15 September 2019

    Essay on Cottage Industry and Its importance

    Essay on Cottage Industry and Its importance

    Introduction – What is cottage industry? Importance of cottage industry 2) Its advantages (i) There is no exploitation. (ii) More people get employment. (iii) it is a cure for many social evils which arise from large scale industry. (iv) Worker remain independent 3) Difficulties in the way of cottage industries. 4) Suggestions for their development. 5) Conclusion – Government is taking interest – conditions are likely to improve.

    Essay on Cottage Industry and Its importance

    Cottage industries, village industries, small scale industries, handicrafts and large scale industries are the various terms which are used for different types of production works, according to their size and production. When a worker produces something with the simple tools, with the help of his family members only, then he is said to be running a cottage industry. The absence of big machines, electric power and hired labour are the features of cottage industries. In our villagers, we see workers spinning and weaving cloth. This is the main cottage industry of our country. Pottery, work-work, metal-work, leather-work, basket-making, crushing of sugarcane, etc., are some other important handicraft of our country.
    The importance of cottage industries is very great for rural as well as urban areas. In villages, farmers can carry on their cottage industries side by side with their main occupation of agriculture. They are important for them as they provide opportunities for part time employment. In urban areas also the poor can start some cottage industries with their own limited resources. They are indispensable for a poor country like India.
    In cottage industries the question of the exploitation of workers does not arise. The worker and his family being both the employer and the employee themselves, get all the earning from their business. Even if in some cases hired labourers are employed, the relations between them and the employer remain healthy.
    Big machines are labour saving devices. They are not used in cottage industries. So if they are encouraged, more and more people get employed. Besides this, they are good means for providing part-time employment.
    The tendency towards centralization is inherent in large scale industries. This leads to over-crowding and congestion in the towns. Children and women are employed in big industries. Corruption becomes rampant. But handicrafts solve all these problems. They are mostly run in the homes of the workers. So the housing problem does not arise, other social ills are also removed.
    Further, the independence of the worker is maintained. The work can be begun and stopped according to his convenience. No rigid-routine is necessary. So in cottage industries the workers enjoy a marked sense of freedom
    Cottage industries have to face many difficulties. They cannot compete with large factories. As the products of the cottage industries are the results of the labour of the workers, their cost remains high in comparison with that of the mill-made goods. Workers are mostly poor. Sometimes, they find it difficult to get raw material and the necessary tools for their work. So these difficulties come in the way of the growth of handicrafts.
    Some suggestions for the development of cottage industry may now be made. The field of production for cottage and large scale industries should be specified. The competition between these two spheres of production should be replaced by co-operation. Credit facilities should be provided. This will enable the workers to purchase raw materials and tools. Facilities for marketing finished goods should be provided. The Government should undertake research work for making simple and cheap machines. This will be very helpful for the progress of cottage industries.
    The government has always recognized the importance of cottage industries. It established the Cottage Industries Board. All India Khadi Development Board, and other such agencies for the production of handicrafts. A large sum has always been allotted for their development in the various Five Year plans of the country. As a result, much progress has been made in this direction. Let us hope much more would be done for the small scale industry in times to come.

    Wednesday, 28 August 2019

    Long and Short Essay on Indira Gandhi

    Long and Short Essay on Indira Gandhi

    Essay on Indira Gandhi : Today, we are providing Long and short paragraph and Essay on Indira Gandhi in English for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12. Students can choose these essay according to their need.

      These easy and simple Essays on Indira Gandhi will give you information about INDIRA GANDHI'S LIFE, ACHIEVEMENTS AND HER FAILURES. 

      Short Essay on Indira Gandhi in 100 words

      Indira Gandhi was the first lady Prime Minister of India. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen years and during her Prime Minister ship, she achieved wide popularity. she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. She studied at the University of Oxford. Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984. The entire world mourned her death. The people of India still love and respect this Iron-lady.

      Essay on Indira Gandhi in 300 words

      Former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad, in the British India She died on October 31, 1984 in New Delhi,
      Long and short paragraph and Essay on Indira Gandhi
      India Indira Gandhi - no relation to Mahatma Gandhi - was the first female Prime Minister of India. She served as Prime Minister for four terms in all She served for three consecutive terms between the years 1966 and 1977. She was re-elected to a fourth term in 1980, and she served until her assasination in 1984.

      Indira was the granddaughter of Indian independence leader Motilal Nehru and daughter of the first Prime Minister of independent India. Jawaharlal Nehru She was brought up in a very political environment, and she became a good politician.

      Indira Gandhi was educated both in India and in Britain. When she returned to India from Oxdord in 1941, she began to work for the movement for Indian independence. She worked as an assistant for her father in the 1950s when he was Prime Minister. Her father died in 1964, When Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister for that year. Indira Gandhi was appointed Minister of Information and Broadcasting.

      Shastri died suddenly and Indira Gandhi Became Prime Minister. Her political upbringing served her well. She showed that she was a skilled politician, good at winning elections and achieving her goal. She pursued social economic policies aimed at helping the people, and worked to make the agricultural system more other and productive.

      She was voted out of office in 1977, but her party won the elections in 1980 and she became Prime Minister again.

      The Golden Temple is the most sacred shine for the Sich religion. In 1984 armed men occupied It. In June of that year, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to storm the Golden Temple to remove them. This offended the Sikhs, and motivated two of Gandhi's bodyguards to assassinate her on October 31, 1984. The New Delhi international airport is named the Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honor

      Essay on Indira Gandhi in 400 words with Conclusion

      Introduction : Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the beloved leader of the people of India. To see her was to love her. After her downfall in 1977, the people had again placed the country in her hands in 1980.

      Indira's Birth, Education and her Marriage : She was born on Nov. 19, 1917. She was brought up in a family full of political activities and love of country. So the family atmosphere had agreat influence on her mind. She got her education at Allahabad,Oxford and Shanti Niketan. In 1942, she was married to Mr. Feroze Gandhi, a Parsi Youth. He died in 1960, she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay.

      A Born Politician : Indira Gandhi was the worthy daughter of a worthy father. She was a born politician. After the death of her mother she had a very difficult time. In her early life she jumped into politics.

      Indira's Political Career : She had been the member of Indian National Congress. In 1959, she was elected President of National Congress. It was only after the death of her father that she became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. After the untimely death of Sh. Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, she was elected Prime Minister of India.

      Indira's work as the Prime Minister : She held the great office for about 17 years. During the period of her reign she led the country to a place of honour. It was under her leadership in 1971,that India defeated Pakistan and broke its back for ever. She nationalized all the major banks and abolished privy purses. Thesewere her two bold steps.

      In 1975 the opposition parties revolted after the historical judgement of Justice Sinha. To put all opposition down she declared a state of Internal Emergency. This brought her defeat in the general election of 1977.She was in hot water for a period of two and a half years. In the mid-term poll, held in January 1980 she won back her lost position.

      Indira's work after 1980 : Now she had to face many challenges.The demand of ‘Khalistan’ made her restless. The whole of the Punjab came in the grip of terrorism. These two things turned the Golden Temple into a fortress. The Akalis presented a great challenge to her. As a custodian of the country's unity she had to order the army to enter into Golden Temple. It freed the temple complex of terrorists.

      Indira Gandhi's Death : On the black Wednesday morning of 31st October, 1984 a 9.18 A.M. she was shot dead at her residence by two of her own security guards named Beant Singh and Satwant Singh. She died after few hours.

      Conclusion : The Nation mourned her death. In her deaththe Nation lost a worthy maker of India.

      Long Essay on Indira Gandhi in 1000 words

      Indira Gandhi, one of the best-known women of the 20th century, was Prime Minister of India, and daughter of former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Also known as Indira Nehru Gandhi, she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. She was born in a family that was at the centre of Indian freedom movement. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru and grandfather Motilal Nehru were at the forefront of Indian freedom struggle. Her mother Kamla Nehru, although less involved politically, was subject to political arrest by the British Indira Gandhi had a lonely childhood, with some of her most vivid remembrances being the entry into her home of British policemen. As her parents did not want to send her to any of the British schools in India, Indira Gandhi's education took place at a series of Indian schools and at non-British schools in Europe, with a number of private tutorials interspersed between periods at school.

      Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. The marriage was opposed by orthodox Hindus because it was an inter-communal love marriage not arranged by her parents. Jawaharlal Nehru too opposed the marriage on grounds that the couple were somewhat incompatible because both possessed fiery tempers. Publicly, however, both Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi strenuously defended the marriage. Shortly after their marriage both Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi were arrested and jailed for nationalist activities. Indira Gandhi was released after eight months and Feroze Gandhi after an year. After the release Feroze Gandhi became editor of The National Herald, a newspaper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the principal confidant and assistant of her father during the period of Nehru's prime ministership (1947-1965). The couple separated for a number of years during the 1950s as Feroze Gandhi launched his own political career in Parliament and was often at odds with Jawaharlal Nehru's policies and style. In 1959 Indira Gandhi became President of the Indian National Congress and in 1964 she was elected to the parliament Meanwhile, the death of Feroze Gandhi (from a heart attack) in 1960, and the subsequent death of her father in 1964, caused Indira Gandhi to withdraw into a shell and limit herself to her immediate family.

      After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister and Indira Gandhi was the minister of Information and Broadcasting in his government. After Lal Bahadur Shastri's untimely death in 1966, she was selected as prime minister by party bosses within the Congress Party as a compromise candidate. Her candidature was opposed by Morarji Desai, a veteran nationalist and prime ministerial aspirant himself. The Congress bosses were apparently looking for a leading figure acceptable to the masses, who could not only command general support during the next general election but who would also acquiesce to their guidance. In her initial days as Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi encountered numerous problems such as Mizo tribal uprisings in the northeast; famine, labour unrest and misery among the poor in the wake of rupee devaluation, and agitation in Punjab for linguistic and religious separatism.

      In the fourth general elections held in 1967, Congress suffered a major setback. Congress majority was greatly reduced in parliament and non-Congress ministries were established in Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Madras, Punjab, and West Bengal. This forced Mrs. Indira Gandhi to become assertive and opt for a series of choices that pitted her directly against the Congress Party high command, which had previously been built up by her father. Seeking to eradicate poverty, Mrs. Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 of land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property, and corporate profits. She also nationalized the major banks, a bold step amidst a growing rift between herself and the party elders. The Congress expelled her for "indiscipline" on November 12, 1969, an action that split the party into two factions: the Congress (O)-for Organisation-led by Morarji Desai, and the Congress (1)--for Indira-led by Indira Gandhi.

      Indira Gandhi campaigned fiercely on the slogan of "Garibi Hatao* (eliminate poverty) during the fifth general elections in March 1971 and won an unprecedented two-third majority. Her leadership qualities came to the fore during India-Pakistan war in 1971 that resulted in liberation of Bangladesh, India achieved decisive victory over Pakistan in the face of diplomatic opposition from both China and the United States and a lack of international support from almost every other nation except the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. Indian victory over Pakistan led to a great surge in Indira Gandhi's popularity and she was compared to Goddess Durga by ordinary Indians.

      Expectations raised by the garibi hatao campaign and India's victory over Pakistan in 1971 led to great disappointment and political difficulties in the mid-1970s. Enormous economic cost of 1971 war, increase in world oil prices and drop in industrial output added to the economic hardships. During this time J.P.Narayan initiated a civil disobedience movement against Indira Gandhi. In June 1975, amidst all this crises Allahabad High Court invalidated her 1971 election on the grounds of electoral malpractices. Instead of resigning  Indira Gandhi declared an Emergency in the country and jailed al her political opponents. The Emergency lasted till March 1977 and in the general election held afterwards she was defeated by a coalition of parties called Janta Morcha.

      Factionalism among coalition partners led to the collapse of Janta government and Indira Gandhi came back to the power once again in 1980. But her second innings was beset with difficulties and personal tragedies. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. Her government was confronted with serious challenges to its ability to maintain law and order as conflicts between religious and ethnic groups broke out in different parts of the country. After the army had invaded the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the chief shrine of the Sikhs, which had been held as an armed camp by a group of militant Sikhs, she became the target for Sikh anger and on 31 October 1984 she was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguard.

      Achievements: Became President of Indian National Congress in 1959; was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in Lal Bahadur Shastri's government; became Prime Minister in 1966; nationalized major banks in 1969; gave the slogan of Garibi Hatao during 1971 general elections: led India to a decisive war against Pakistan in 1971.


      Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi was sworn-in as the Prime Minister of India on 26th January, 1964, after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen years and during her Prime Ministership she achieved wide popularity. From the very beginning of her coming to this important office, she had to face a large number of difficulties - internal as well as external-and it is creditable that after facing each new difficulty she, as well as the nation, emerged with greater confidence and sense of strength. She took various, revolutionary steps for the well-being and prosperity of the Indian people.

      First of all she had to evercome the strains imposed on the Indian economy by the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. Next, drought and floods devasted large parts of the country. Then in 1971, there was another war with Pakistan and an influx of about ten million refugees from Bangladesh. In the war, Pakistan armies were routed and over a lakh of her troops surrendered unconditionally. The result was the birth of a new and friendly nation Bangladesh. The refugees were all sent back. It was during this time of crisis that she signed the historic treaty of peace and friendship with the Soveit Union. In this way she secured a powerful friend for India.

      No sooner had Mrs. Gandhi and the people succeeded in solving these problems, than there was an international oil crisis which caused an increase in the prices of patroleum, fertilizers, chemicals, food and other commodities, which India had to import in large quantities. This further increased the inflationary pressure on the India economy. Prices soared and the purchasing power of the rupee declined in both domestic and foreign markets. It goes to the credit of Mrs. Gandhi that despite such over- whelming difficulties, she was able to check inflation and bring down prices.

      In order to acquire full control over the economy, late Mrs. Indira Gandhi nationalised fourteen major banks. By this step the banks were enabled to divert loans to the weaker sections of society. This was followed by the take over of the general insurance companies and coal mines. After this, various foreign oil refineries were taken over. She also abolished the privy purses and other privileges of the Indian princes. After 25 years of independence, it was reasonable to end the special rights of the former rulers. The Government had to pay several crores of rupees every year to these Rajas and Maharajas and the Indian people had to bear this burden. It was a bold step in the direction of socialism.

      Special attention was paid to, the development of Science and technology. Two major achievements of the period are an underground nuclear explosion for peaceful purposes, and the launching of satellites into space. By these achievements, the prestige of the nation was increased manifold in the word. Now, not only does India have a large number of efficient scientists, technicians and doctors for herself, but is also sending technical personnel in large numbers to the underdeveloped countries of the world.

      Under her able leadership, India marched towards self-reliance very rapidly. It started drilling oil from Bombay High and it is estimated that soon India will have enough oil for its needs. Thus, a large amount of foreign exchange wasted on the import of oil will be saved. On the agriculture side also, India has become self-reliant. Food production has been doubled, and the birth rate has been brought down through intensive family planning drives.

      A vigorous campaign against anti-social elements like smugglers and tax-evaders, was launched. As a result of the arrest and detention of hundreds of smugglers, drain on India's foreign exchange resources was considerably reduced. Hundreds of hoarders and black-marketeers were arrested and this led to a fall in the prices of essential commodities

      Unfortunately, the opposition parties launched agitations against the elected government and also against Mrs. Gandhi personally. They tried to remove the government by force. There were violent agitations in Bihar and Gujrat and Bundhs' and Gherao's all over the country. Near chaotic conditions prevailed, and for sometime it seemed there was no government in the country. Taking into account the subversive role of the opposition parties, she considered it necessary to declare a state of emergency arising from threats of inter disturbance. Opposition leaders were arrested, and communal parties like the R.S.S. and Anand Marg were banned.

      During the nineteen months of emergency there was marked improvement in every walk of life. In government offices efficiency returned after a long time. A large number of corrupt and inefficient officers w were suspended or retired. There were no strikes and lock outs in industries. Schools and colleges once again functioned peacefully. The use of unfair means was checked and examinations were held on schedule. Sense of discipline was infused into national life. Peace, stability, law and order, were once again restored in a country which seemed to be on the brink of chaos and disintegration.

      However, by the declaration of emergency Mrs. Gandhi caused great hardships to the people. There were excesses of all sorts. The result was the rout of the Congress and the coming of the Janta Party to power. There were many other ways of dealing with the chaotic conditions which prevailed before the emergency. But the Janta party could not rule for any length of time. Mrs. Gandhi was back again, more powerful than ever before.

      During the last three years of her career she attended a number of international conferences and emerged as a leader of international status. The successful holding of the Asiad games, despite position, was a sign achievement. Under her dynamic leadership Indian economy began to look up. The country was safe in her hands. The Punjab problem was the most difficult problem that she had to face in her career. The Operation Blue Star made the hard-core among the sikhs hostile to her. Her name stood at the top of their hit list. The result was she was assassinated on 31st October, 1984, and the entire world mourned her death.

      Thus ended a brilliant career full of remarkable achievements.